Periodisation Overview

Jack Burdett
Mind Map by Jack Burdett, updated more than 1 year ago
Jack Burdett
Created by Jack Burdett over 4 years ago


An overview of periodisation

Resource summary

Periodisation Overview
  1. Case Study: Games Player - Footballer
    1. Pre Season
      1. High intensity, high duration until close to competition
        1. Focus on cardiovascular training and then focuses on position specific areas. E.G. Striker improves speed
        2. Competition
          1. Keep on peak performance throughout
            1. Focus on tactics, new formations, set plays ready for match
              1. High intensity, low duration so peak fitness is kept
              2. Off Season
                1. Low intensity, low duration to recover
                  1. Keep minimum fitness level intact
                2. Benefits of Periodisation
                  1. Allows peak performance at competition time
                    1. Overload allows a change in Frequency, Intensity, Time and Type
                      1. Progression allows a gradual increase to meet specific targets
                        1. Fitness testing at intervals throughout the season
                          1. Measure recovery
                            1. End of season
                              1. Middle of season (Christmas)
                                1. Start of Pre season
                                  1. Measure against other athletes
                                  2. Variety of training methods to avoid tedium and reversibility
                                    1. Make specific training plans to improve weaknesses of the athlete
                                      1. Train in moderation to stop burn out and injury
                                        1. Team selection for fitness. E.G. American Football
                                          1. Identify talented athletes through training
                                          2. Periodisation
                                            1. The systematic planning of athletic or physical training
                                              1. The aim is to reach the best possible performance in the most important competition of the year
                                                1. It involves progressive cycling of various aspects of a training program during a specific period
                                                  1. Double Periodisation
                                                    1. Performer must peak more than once a year due to many different competition to reach. E.G. A tennis player must peak for each event
                                                    2. Undulation
                                                      1. When the performer has to peak all year. E.G. A Premier League footballer has to peak for every game
                                                    3. The Cycles
                                                      1. Macrocycle
                                                        1. Consists of a large annual plan to achieve an overall goals based on fitness and competition
                                                          1. Usually lasts about a year
                                                          2. Mesocycle
                                                            1. Represents a specific block of training that is designed to accomplish a particular goal
                                                              1. It is completed over sections of a season and is the overall aims of the macrocycle
                                                                1. Usually lasts about 2 to 3 months
                                                                2. Microcycle
                                                                  1. The shortest training cycle with the goal of improving a focused block of training
                                                                    1. Focuses on the overall aims of the mesocycle and improves specific issues of a weakness
                                                                      1. Usually lasts about 1 to 2 weeks
                                                                      2. Megacycle
                                                                        1. Similar to the aims of a macrocycle, the mega is focused on peaking in 4 years time
                                                                          1. Used by Olympians who need to peak for the Games
                                                                        2. Warm Up and Cool Down
                                                                          1. Warm Up
                                                                            1. Structure
                                                                              1. Focus on cardio - jog slowly increasing
                                                                                1. Mobilising task for joints
                                                                                  1. Stretches - dynamic, ballistic and PNF
                                                                                    1. Work on skill - E.G. Strikers focus on shooting
                                                                                    2. Benefits
                                                                                      1. Increase nerve transmission
                                                                                        1. Increase flexibility
                                                                                          1. Improve muscle viscosity
                                                                                        2. Cool Down
                                                                                          1. Structure
                                                                                            1. Slow steady jog - moving down to a walk
                                                                                              1. Static stretches
                                                                                              2. Benefits
                                                                                                1. Stop lactic acid build up
                                                                                                  1. Stop blood pooling
                                                                                                    1. Reduce heart rate back to rest
                                                                                                2. Aerobic Capacity and VO2 Max
                                                                                                  1. Aerobic Capacity - The ability to work at a sub-maximal level over a long period of time (60-80% of MHR)
                                                                                                    1. VO2 Max - The highest rate of oxygen consumption attainable during maximal activity
                                                                                                      1. Factors that Affect Aerobic Capacity
                                                                                                        1. Training
                                                                                                          1. Doing Continuous or Fartlek training will improve cardiovascular endurance
                                                                                                          2. Age
                                                                                                            1. The older you get the lower your max heart rate meaning less aerobic capacity
                                                                                                            2. Gender
                                                                                                              1. Males have bigger hearts and lungs meaning they can work at a higher intensity and thus have a better aerobic capacity
                                                                                                              2. Genetics
                                                                                                                1. The more Type 1 Fibres you have the better your aerobic capacity due to fibres allowing more oxygen into the body
                                                                                                              3. Fitness Testing of Aerobic Capacity
                                                                                                                1. Multi-Stage Fitness Test
                                                                                                                  1. Known as the 'bleep test', the multi-stage fitness test is when you run between 2 ends (lengthened 20 metres) before the beep occurs
                                                                                                                    1. If a beep is missed you must catch up, if you miss it again you drop out and the score you get is the result for your test. The higher the better
                                                                                                                      1. Advantages
                                                                                                                        1. It is easy and quick to do
                                                                                                                          1. Can be performed in a small space with large numbers
                                                                                                                          2. Disadvantages
                                                                                                                            1. People have to be motivated to get a good score
                                                                                                                              1. People miss the end and don't call it making it less accurate
                                                                                                                                1. Turns into anaerobic respiration once it goes past a certain point
                                                                                                                              2. Gas Analysis
                                                                                                                                1. Gas analysis is the test performed on a treadmill or bike, applying resistance or more speed to reach and measure the max amount of oxygen intake
                                                                                                                                  1. Once it reaches max intake, the graph lines off and the person cant take in anymore oxygen
                                                                                                                                    1. Advantages
                                                                                                                                      1. Very accurate scores in measuring VO2 Max
                                                                                                                                        1. Person can't cheat
                                                                                                                                        2. Disadvantages
                                                                                                                                          1. Very expensive to buy all the equipment
                                                                                                                                            1. Only used at the elite level
                                                                                                                                          2. PWC 170 (Physical Working Capacity Test)
                                                                                                                                            1. Performed on the exercise bike and working sub-maximally at 60-80% of MHR
                                                                                                                                              1. The resistance increases and a linear relationship between heart rate and oxygen intake are measured on a graph
                                                                                                                                          3. Characteristics of Training
                                                                                                                                            1. Fartlek Training
                                                                                                                                              1. A form of speed training that is effective in improving speed and endurance
                                                                                                                                                1. It involves varying your pace throughout your run, alternating between fast and slow jogs
                                                                                                                                                  1. Fartlek is very unstructured and work to rest intervals are based on how the body feels
                                                                                                                                                    1. Advantages
                                                                                                                                                      1. It doesn't have to be on track, it can be used on any terrain
                                                                                                                                                        1. Cognitive learners enjoy the easy to learn and speed work sessions
                                                                                                                                                          1. No tedium as there is loads of variety
                                                                                                                                                          2. Disadvantages
                                                                                                                                                            1. The constant pauses stops the kinesthesis of the training
                                                                                                                                                              1. It is easy for trainers to skip the hard portions and just do the easy ones
                                                                                                                                                            2. Interval training
                                                                                                                                                              1. It is all about maximum exertion for maximum results
                                                                                                                                                                1. It has a series of high and low intensity activities to improve cardiovascular endurance
                                                                                                                                                                  1. Alternating bursts of fast running with slow trains the muscles to work more efficiently at higher speeds
                                                                                                                                                                    1. Work to rest ratio aerobically - 1 to 1
                                                                                                                                                                      1. Advantages
                                                                                                                                                                        1. Highly adapatable
                                                                                                                                                                          1. Recovery time allows cognitive learners to not become as fatigued so quick
                                                                                                                                                                          2. Disadvantages
                                                                                                                                                                            1. Pauses stop the kinesthesis of the training
                                                                                                                                                                              1. Can't experiment with multiple intervals
                                                                                                                                                                            2. Altitude Training
                                                                                                                                                                              1. A practice used by endurance athletes at a high altitude to increase the amount of oxygen depth that is needed to work at that high altitude
                                                                                                                                                                                1. This is then brought down to sea level and oxygen capacity should have improved
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. It is extreme and increase the athletes red blood cell count
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Advantages
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Performance improves overtime
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Increasing the amount of red blood cells in the body and blood flow
                                                                                                                                                                                        2. Disadvantages
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Can't train at the same intensity when at sea level
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Not everyone has an area of high altitude
                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Continuous Training
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. A type of training that involves activity without rest intervals
                                                                                                                                                                                              1. It is performed over a long, steady period of time, while working between 60-80% of your sub-maximal capacity
                                                                                                                                                                                                1. It is usually used by long distance runners such as Mo Farah
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Advantages
                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Improves your overall aerobic capacity
                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Performance can be monitored using heart rate machines
                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. No equipment is needed
                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. Disadvantges
                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Very repetitive so it gets boring
                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Self-motivation is needed to perfrom
                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Causes lots of skeletal injuries
                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Adaptations Caused by Aerobic Training
                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. A permanent change to the body caused by 6 to 8 weeks of regular changing
                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Skeletal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Increase strength along the bone and bone density
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Cartilage becomes thicker
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Ligaments and tendons become stronger
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Muscular
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Increase resistance to fatigue
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Increase number of Type 1 muscle fibres
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Changing Type 2b fibres to 2a's
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Increase in myoglobin and mitochondria stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Increase muscle glycogen stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Develop muscular endurance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Cardiovascular
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Increase stroke volume and cardiac output
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Decreasing in resting heart rate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Increase in left ventricular wall size
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Increase in capillaries
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Blood vessel walls can dilate easier
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Respiratory
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Increase in surface area of alveoli (diffuses more)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Stronger respiratory muscles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Lifestyle
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Decrease in body fat
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Improve metabolism
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Delay in OBLA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Show full summary Hide full summary


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  GCSE PE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Australia vs UK PE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Cal Jones
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The Skeletal System - PE GCSE EdExcel
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Unit 4: The Respiratory and Circulatory Systems
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Cath Warriner
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Unit 1: The Role of the Active Participant
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Cath Warriner
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Unit 2: Factors Affecting Performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Cath Warriner
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Components of Fitness
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  WCC VCE PE: Energy Systems
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Tim Hodge
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Unit 5 : Health and Fitness
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Cath Warriner
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  GCSE PE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  SMART targets
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Ben Kidner