MORAY (1959 - classic) Dichotic listening

siobhan johnston
Mind Map by siobhan johnston, updated more than 1 year ago
siobhan johnston
Created by siobhan johnston almost 5 years ago
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COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY -Attention (1/2)

Resource summary

MORAY (1959 - classic) Dichotic listening
  1. BACKGROUND
    1. Cherry (1953) cocktail effect (selective attention): method of shadowing one of two dichotic messages. Found those who shadowed a message in one ear (attended info), were ignorant to the content of the other ear (unattended/rejected info). Other researchers developed his work by investigating why so little seemed to be remembered from the unattended messages (Broadbent (1958), Treisman (1964))
    2. AIMS = To test factors that would enable unattended dichotically presented messages to be noticed.
      1. Research method = Lab experiement
        1. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
          1. experiment 1
            1. Repeated measures
              1. IV = dichotic listening test (3 conditions: shadowed, rejected and controlled message)
                1. DV = asked to recall as much as they could from unattended message. the no of words remembered in the form of a recognition test (included words from shadowed and rejected message and a control set of words present I neither)
                2. experiment 2. NAME MENTIONED
                  1. Independent measures
                    1. IV = whether or not instructions in the message were preceded by the participants own name (affective instructions or NON affective instructions)
                      1. DV = the frequency with which the instructions were heard (affective)
                      2. experiment 3. DIGITS OR NOT
                        1. independent measures
                          1. IV = whether digits were inserted into one of the messages or instead they would be asked about the content of the shadowed message.
                            1. DV = the mean number of digits remembered
                            2. controls
                              1. volume
                                1. same male speaker who recorded the passages throughout
                              2. SAMPLE
                                1. undergraduates and research workers of both sexes
                                  1. experiment 2 = 12 particps
                                    1. experiment 3 = two groups of 14
                                      1. experiment 1 = not given
                                        1. self - selected
                                        2. procedure details
                                          1. experiment 1 = short list of simple words repeated 35 times in unattended ear, asked to shadow a prose message in the attended ear. they were then asked to report all they could remember of the rejected message. a recognition test was then given 30 secs after the end of shadowing including words from shadowed and rejected message and a control set of words present I neither.
                                            1. experiment 2 = particips shadowed 10 short passages of light friction. They were told that their Reponses would be recorded and that the object of the experiment was to score as few mistakes as possible. in some of the passages no instructions were given, in others instructions were interpolated, and in the remaining instructions were prefixed with the partcips name. all particips experienced all 10 conditions
                                              1. experiment 3 = messages were constructed which had digit interspersed towards the end of the message(experimental). similar messages had no digits (control). particips either heard 2 experimental or one of each. partcips of the experimental were told to remember as many numbers as possible. the control group was told they'd be asked questions about the content of the shadowed message.
                                                1. before each experiment participants were given four passages of prose to shadow for practice
                                                2. Data collected = quantitative
                                                  1. results
                                                    1. experiment 1 = no evidence of the words from the rejected message being remembered. these findings support cherry's work.
                                                      1. experiment 2 = those who had their name said before the instructions heard more of the instructions (affective instructions).
                                                        1. experiment 3 = the mean no of digits recalled when particips had been told they would be asked about the content was NO DIFFERENT to those that were told to listen to digits, even thought they were prompted when digits were likely to occur in the text, thus the stimulus did not seem important enough to break through the attention barrier.
                                                        2. conclusions
                                                          1. when directing your attention to only one message from one ear, one rejects the message from the unattended ear and almost none of the content of this rejected message is able to penetrate the attention barrier (cannot be recalled)
                                                            1. a short list of simple words presented as the rejected message shows no trace of being remembered even when repeated many times
                                                              1. subjectively 'important' messages such as a persons name can penetrate the block.
                                                                1. it is very difficult to make 'neutral' material such as numbers , important enough to break through the attention block.
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