VARIATIONS IN CONSCIOUSNESS

Whitney  Mitsuing
Mind Map by Whitney Mitsuing, updated more than 1 year ago
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My concept map for chapter seven.

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VARIATIONS IN CONSCIOUSNESS
1 The Nature of Consciousness
1.1 Consciousness is the awareness of internal and external stimuli
1.2 The contents of consciousness are continually changing
1.2.1 It moves
1.2.2 It flows
1.2.3 It fluctates
1.2.4 It wanders
1.3 When you are asleep your consciousness moves through a series of transitions
1.4 Constant change and shifting seem to be apart of the essential nature of consciousness
1.5 The most commonly used indicator of variations in consciousness has been the EEG
1.5.1 (the EEG records activity from broad swaths of the cortex)
1.5.1.1 EEG also summarizes the rhythm of cortical activity in the brain in terms of line tracings called brain waves
2 Biological Rhythms
2.1 Periodic fluctuations in physiological functioning
2.2 Circadian rhythms are particularly influential in the regulation of sleep
2.3 Daily exposure to light readjusts people's biological clocks
2.3.1 When exposed, some receptors in the retina send direct inputs to a small structure in the hypothalamus called the suprachiasmatic nucleus
2.4 Getting out of sync with your circadian rhythms also causes "jet leg"
2.5 A promising line of research has focused on giving small doses of the hormone melatonin, which appears to regulate the human biological clock
3 Sleep
3.1 EEG pattern in sleep and wakefulness
3.1.1 Awake
3.1.1.1 Low voltage, high frequency beta waves
3.1.1.2 Drowsy
3.1.1.2.1 Alpha waves prominent
3.1.1.2.2 Stage 1 Sleep
3.1.1.2.2.1 Theta waves prominent
3.1.1.2.2.2 Stage 2 Sleep
3.1.1.2.2.2.1 Sleep spindles and mixed EEG activity
3.1.1.2.2.2.2 Slow-Wave Sleep (stage 4 and 4 sleep)
3.1.1.2.2.2.2.1 Progressively more delta waves
3.1.1.2.2.2.2.2 REM sleep
3.1.1.2.2.2.2.2.1 Low-voltage, high-frequency waves
3.2 REM sleep is a relatively deep stage of sleep marked by rapid eye movements; high-frequency, low-amplitude brain waves; and vivid dreaming
3.3 It is such a special stage of sleep that the other four stages are often characterized simply as non- REM sleep
3.3.1 Non-REM sleep consists of sleep stages 1 through 4, which are marked by an absence of REM's, relatively little dreaming, and varied EEG activity
3.4 Insomnia
3.4.1 Most common sleep disorder
3.4.2 Refers to chronic problems in getting adequate sleep
3.4.3 Three basic patterns:
3.4.3.1 1) difficulty in falling asleep
3.4.3.1.1 2) difficulty in remaining asleep
3.4.3.1.1.1 3) persistent early-morning awakening
3.4.4 Causes:
3.4.4.1 excessive anxiety
3.4.4.2 tension
3.4.4.3 emotional problems
3.4.4.4 health problems
3.4.4.5 significant stress
3.4.5 Treatment:
3.4.5.1 benzodiazepine sedatives
3.4.5.1.1 Dalmane Halcion
3.4.5.1.2 Restoril
3.4.5.2 non benzodiazepine sedatives
3.4.5.2.1 Ambeian
3.4.5.2.2 Sonata
3.4.5.2.3 Lunesta
3.4.5.3 (sedatives can be a poor long term solution for insomnia because it can lead to drug overdose etc)
3.5 Sleep deprivation
3.5.1 Occurs when people make do with substanitially less sleep than normal people over a period of time
3.5.2 Can impair
3.5.2.1 Individuals attention
3.5.2.2 Reaction time
3.5.2.3 Cognitive speed and accuracy
3.5.2.4 motor coordination
3.5.2.5 decision making
3.5.3 Selective deprivation of slow wave sleep makes subjects want to have longer periods of REM sleep
3.5.4 Studies suggest that REM and slow wave sleep contribute to firming up learning that takes place during the day
3.6 Other Sleep Problems
3.6.1 Narcolepsy
3.6.1.1 A disease marked by sudden and irresistible onsets of sleep during normal waking periods
3.6.1.2 Night terrors (sleep terrors)
3.6.1.2.1 Abrupt awakenings from NREM sleep, accompanied by intense automatic arousal and feelings of panic
3.6.2 Sleep Apnea
3.6.2.1 Involves frequent, reflexive gasping for air that awakens a person and disrupts sleep
3.6.3 Nightmares
3.6.3.1 Anxiety-arousing dreams that lead to awakening, usually from REM sleep
3.6.4 Somnambulism (sleep walking)
3.6.4.1 Occurs when a person arises and wanders about while remaining asleep
3.6.5 REM sleep behaviour disorder
3.6.5.1 By marked potentially troublesome dream enactments during REM periods
4 Dreams
4.1 What people dream about is affected by what is going on in their lives
4.2 Freud noticed long ago that the contents of waking life often tented to spill into dreams
4.3 The content of dreams can also be affected by stimuli experience while one is dreaming
4.4 Sometimes people may realize they are dreaming while still in the dream state (lucid dreaming)
4.4.1 Lucid dreams are dreams in which people can think clearly about the circumstances of waking life and the fact that they are dreaming, yet they remain asleep in the midst of a vivid dream
4.5 Theories of Dreaming
4.5.1 Sigmund Freud
4.5.1.1 Believed that the principle of dreams is wish fulfillment
4.5.2 Catwright and Lamberg
4.5.2.1 Proposed that dreams provide an opportunity to work through everyday problems
4.5.3 Hobson and McCarley
4.5.3.1 Argue that dreams are simply the by-product of bursts of activity emanating from subcortical areas in the brain
4.5.4 J. Allan Hobson
4.5.4.1 Proposes that dreams are side effects of the neural activity that produces "wide-awake" brain waves during REM sleep
5 Hypnosis
5.1 Systematic procedure that typically produces a heightened state of suggestibility
5.2 May also lead to passive relaxation, narrowed attention, and enhanced fantasy
5.3 Hypnotic Phenomena
5.3.1 1) Anesthesia
5.3.1.1 hypnosis can be a surprisingly effective anesthetic in the treatment of both acute and chronic pain
5.3.1.2 2) Sensory Distortions and Halluctions
5.3.1.2.1 May be led to experience auditory or visual hallucinations
5.3.1.2.2 May also have their sensations distorted
5.3.1.2.3 3) Disinhibition
5.3.1.2.3.1 Can sometimes reduce inhibititions that would normally prevent subjects from acting in ways that they would normally see as socially undesirable
5.3.1.2.3.2 4) Posthypnotic Suggestions and Amnesia
5.3.1.2.3.2.1 May influence a subjects later behaviour
5.3.1.2.3.2.2 May or not may not forget what had happened during the processe
6 Meditation
6.1 Refers to a family of practices that train attention to heighten awareness and bring mental processes under greater voluntary control
6.2 Practiced throughout history as an element of all religious and spiritual traditions
6.3 Approaches to meditation cna be classified into two main styles that reflect how attention is directed
6.3.1 1) Focused Attention
6.3.1.1 Attention is concentrated on a specific object, sound or bodily sensation
6.3.2 2) Open Monitering
6.3.2.1 Attention is directed to the contents of one's clear moment-to-moment experience in a nonjudgmental and nonreactive way
6.4 Some Long Term Benefits
6.4.1 Lower levels of "stress hormones"
6.4.2 Enhanced immune response
6.4.3 Improves mental health
6.4.4 Reduces anxiety and drug abuse
6.4.5 Beneficial effects on blood pressure
6.4.6 Reduced rumination
6.4.7 Working memory and focus
6.4.8 Improves self esteem
6.4.9 Cognitive flexibility and relationship satisfaction
6.4.10 Improves mood and one's sense of control
7 Altering Consciousness with Drugs
7.1 The drugs that people use recreationally are psychoactive.
7.1.1 Psychoactive drugs are chemical substances that modify mental, emotional, or behavioural functioning
7.2 Generally, people prefer drugs that elevate their mood or produce other pleasurable alterations in conciousness
7.3 Primary Abused Drugs
7.3.1 Narcotics (or opiates) : drugs derived from opium that are capable of relieving pain
7.3.2 Sedatives : Sleep inducing drugs that tend to decrease the central nervous system activation and behavioural activity
7.3.3 Stimulants : Drugs that tend to increase central nervous system activation and behavioural activity
7.3.4 Hallucinogens : Diverse group of drugs that have powerful effects on mental and emotional functioning
7.3.5 Cannabis : A hemp plant from which marijuana, hash, and THC are derived
7.3.6 Alcohol : Variety of beverages containing ethyl alcohol
7.3.7 MDMA (ecstasy) : Compound drug related to both amphetamines and hallucinations, especially mescaline
7.4 The impact on any drug depends in part on the users age, mood, motivation, personality, previous experience, body weight, and physiology
7.5 The dose and potency of the drug, the method of administration, and the setting in which a drug is taken also influence its effects
7.6 Risks with Drug Abuse
7.6.1 Overdose
7.6.2 Addiction
7.6.3 Damage tissue directly
7.6.4 Cocaine can damage nasal membranes
7.6.5 Risks of heart attack and stroke
7.6.6 Serious health problems
7.6.7 Cancer
7.6.8 Neurological disorders
7.6.8.1 Mental health issues
7.6.9 Liver damage
7.6.10 Damage to brain cells
7.6.11 Respiratory problems
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