1.1 When people behave on the behalf
of an external authority so we feel
1.2 Teachers were concerned for learners welfare but
when experimenter took responsiblity they felt less
to blame and continued, 65% reached 450V
1.3 Confederate rebel variation in which 2
confederates refused to continue, therefore
it was up to the ppt to continue, only 10%
1.4 Milgram believed his ppts were
just following orders and did not
2 Legitmate Authority (Only use bickman study)
2.1 We are socialised to recognise authority
figures, we obey people who are higher
than us in the social hierarchy
2.2 Bickman (74) dressed as civilian and gaurd and asked people to
preform tasks in public such as move or litter.
2.3 90% obeyed the guard, only 50% obeyed the citizen figure.
2.4 We are more inclined to obey authority figures
3 Gradual Commitment
3.1 This is agreeing to an order in small steps,
each step shows an increase in the request.
3.2 Milgram put his shocks up by 15v each time
there was a wrong answer given, up to 450V.
3.3 Teachers discretion variation study
had no gradient of shocks and the
teacher could use any level of voltage
they wished, only 0.4% Maxed to 450V
3.4 It is harder to say no after carrying out previous requests
4.1 Buffers protect us from seeing the
consequences of our actions
4.2 Teacher and learner were originally in
seperate rooms, the teacher couldn't see the
learners struggle with the voltage. 65%
Maxed to 450V
4.3 In the proximity and touching proximity study the learner and
teacher were in the same room and in the touching proximity
the teacher had to physical make the learner be shocked,
obedience dropped to 40% when seeing consequences
4.4 People will obey if their consequences
of their actions are hidden and they do
not have to face them.