California - Disaster Hotspot

Jodie Goodacre
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

A-Levels Geography (World at risk) Mind Map on California - Disaster Hotspot, created by Jodie Goodacre on 05/02/2013.

Jodie Goodacre
Created by Jodie Goodacre over 6 years ago
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California - Disaster Hotspot
1 West America
2 Along the Pacific coastline
3 Located on the San Andres Fault Line
4 Conservative plate
5 158,706 sq. miles
6 350 miles East-West
7 780 miles North-South
8 Bordered by Oregon (North), Nevada (East) and Arizona (South East)
9 Sierra Nevada includes the highest peak in the contiguous 48 states, Mount Whitney at 14,505 ft.
10 About 45% of the state's total surface area is covered by forests
11 Part of the 'Ring of Fire'
12 Southeastern California is arid, hot desert with routine extreme high temperatures in the summer
13 Earthquakes
13.1 Large and shallow earthquakes
13.2 San Andres fault
13.3 Fairly violent and frequent
13.4 North American and Pacific plates
13.4.1 Moving in the same direction, but at a different speed
13.5 Lomo Prieta Earthquake
13.5.1 17th October 1989
13.5.2 5:04pm
13.5.3 San Francisco
13.5.4 Magnitude of 7.1 with an aftershock of 5.2
13.5.5 63 people were killed
13.5.6 13,757 people were injured
13.5.7 1,018 homes were destroyed
13.5.8 23,408 homes damaged
13.5.9 366 businesses destroyed
13.5.10 3,530 businesses damaged
13.5.11 Damages reached $6billion
13.5.12 Only light traffic at that time as the 1989 world series baseball championship was just starting in the area
13.5.13 The initial media reports failed to take into account the game's effect on traffic and initially estimated the death toll at 300, which was later corrected to 63
13.5.14 Caused airports to close due to cracks
13.5.15 Railways lost power however no passengers were harmed
13.5.16 Caused enough damage that some parts of the region's freeway system had to be demolished
13.5.17 San Francisco Bay Bridge collapsed sending more than 40 slabs of concrete (600 tons each) onto cars below
13.5.18 The earthquakes shock waves roiled the unstable soil into slush, a process called liquefaction
13.6 The Northridge Earthquake
13.6.1 17th January 1994
13.6.2 4:31am
13.6.3 Los Angeles
13.6.4 Densely populated
13.6.5 6.7 magnitude
13.6.6 Thousands of aftershocks during the following weeks of magnitudes between 4.0 and 5.0
13.6.7 57 people killed
13.6.8 1,500 seriously injured
13.6.9 12,500 buildings were damaged
13.6.10 9,000 homes and businesses were without electricity for several days
13.6.11 20,000 people went without gas
13.6.12 48,500 people went without water
13.6.13 Numerous fires were caused by broken gas lines
13.6.14 11 hospitals suffered structural damage and were damaged or unstable after the earthquake
13.6.15 Freeways and major roads were shut due to damaged or collapsed roads
13.6.16 Rail service briefly interrupted
13.6.17 Los Angles international airport was shut
13.6.18 California State University was the only major university near the epicenter and many classes had to be moved due to damaged buildings
13.7 A 9,2 Earthquake in 1964 led to a devastating tsunami - 6 meter wave killing 11
14 El Nino
14.1 River floods
14.2 Instead of coming ashore in the Pacific Northwest as usual, the southern jet stream hits California, carrying moisture and storms.
14.3 Increased rainfall
14.4 Landslides
14.5 Coastal erosion
14.6 Not all big flooding takes place in El Nino years
14.6.1 E.g. December 1955 and 1964 , January 1882, February 1986
14.7 Not all El Nino years produce widespread flooding
14.8 Increases probability of storms
14.9 Leads to landslides
14.10 Trade winds move eastwards across the pacific
14.11 February 1998 El Nino caused havoc in the San Francisco Bay region
14.11.1 6ft high water splashed over the city's waterfront
14.12 Low atmospheric pressure
14.13 Strong winds
15 La Nina
15.1 Droughts
15.2 Wildfires
15.3 Warm air
15.4 Dry air
15.5 Gusty conditions
15.6 Exacerbated wildfires throughout the western US on August 24th 2012
15.7 Northern California was one of the area's most severely affected
15.8 Most wildfires blazed in remote areas, but the Ponderosa fire has destroyed several homes and threatened hundreds of others
15.9 By August 24th 2012, The Bagley fire had burned 11,083 acres of land
15.9.1 The Chips fire had burned 63,100 acres of land
15.9.2 The Fort Complex fire had burned 6,683 acres of land
15.9.3 The Ponderosa fire had burned 28,089 acres of land
15.10 At least 1,500 homes were destroyed overal
15.11 9 people died as a result of wildfires in 2007
15.12 85 were injured in wildfires including 61 firefighters in 2007
15.13 Over 6,000 firefighters worked to fight the blaze in 2007
16 Landslides
16.1 Glendora
16.1.1 1 Million cubic meters of rock and mud slid down a hillside
16.1.2 Destroyed 200 homes
16.1.3 Killing dozens of people
16.2 La Conchita
16.2.1 Prone to mudslides
16.2.2 Sits beneath a geologically unstable formation
16.2.3 March 4th 1995 Buried or damaged 7 homes No one was injured
16.2.4 January 10th 2005 12:30pm Buried four blocks of the town in over 30ft of earth Ten people were killed 14 were injured 15 homes were destroyed and 16 were uninhabitable
17 Fog famously blankets San Francisco in the Summer when hot inland temperatures create a low-pressure zone over Northern California
18 The coping capacity is high
19 Wealthy with per capita incomes of over US$65,000
20 Its economy is the world's 6th largest - bigger than France and Italy
21 Population was estimated at 38 million in 2012
22 Seismic building codes apply to all existing buildings with at least one masonry bearing wall that is not reinforced
23 After a severe earthquake in 1971, significant enhancements to the building codes pertaining to earthquakes were made.

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