Energy and ATP

Tia Eve
Mind Map by Tia Eve, updated more than 1 year ago
Tia Eve
Created by Tia Eve almost 5 years ago
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Mind Map on Energy and ATP, created by Tia Eve on 10/25/2016.

Resource summary

Energy and ATP
  1. Structure of ATP
    1. Phosphorylated molecule
      1. Adenine - A nitrogen-containing organic base
        1. Ribose - A sugar molecule with 5-carbon ring structure that acts as the backbone to the other parts
          1. Phosphates - A chain of three phosphate groups
          2. How ATP stores energy
            1. Bonds between the 3 phosphate groups are unstable and have a low activation energy therefore easily broken
              1. When they break a lot of energy is released
                1. ATP + H2O --> ADP + Pi + E
                  1. Adenine Triphosphate + Water --> Adenine Diphosphate + Inorganic Phosphate + Energy
            2. Synthesis of ATP
              1. Water is used to convert ATP to ADP
                1. This is a reversible reaction and energy can be used to add an inorganic phosphate to ADP to re-form ATP
                2. Occurs in 3 ways
                  1. In chlorophyll-containing plant cells during photosynthesis (photophosphorylation)
                    1. In plant and animal cells during respiration (oxidative phosphorylation)
                      1. In plant and animal cells when phosphate groups are transferred from donor molecules to ADP (substrate-level phosphorylation)
                    2. Roles of ATP
                      1. The immediate energy source of a cell
                        1. Don't store large quantities of ATP, only a few seconds supply
                        2. Better than glucose as an immediate energy source
                          1. ATP releases less energy and quantities are more manageable
                            1. Hydrolysis of ATP to ADP is a single reaction and glucose is a long series of reactions
                          2. Cannot be stored so is continuously made in the mitochondria e.g muscle fibres which require energy for movement
                            1. Used in energy-requiring processes in cells
                              1. Metabolic processes - for building up macromolecules from basic units
                                1. Active transport - to change shape of carrier proteins in plasma membranes for molecules/ions to be moved against a concentration gradient
                                  1. Activation of molecules - inorganic phosphate can be used to phosphorylate other compounds to make them more reactive, lowering the activation energy in enzyme-catalysed reactions
                                    1. Secretion - form lysosomes for the secretion of cell products
                                      1. Movement - provides energy for muscle contraction, for filaments of muscle to slide past one another and shorten the length of a muscle fibre
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