Illocutionary Forces, Register, and Formulaic Elements

Alyssa Fletcher
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Chapter 7
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Illocutionary Forces, Register, and Formulaic Elements
1 Alyssa Fletcher Chapter 7 10/31/16
2 Register & Implications for Interpreters
2.1 Setting one is involved in, how fast/slow person speaks, whether there is interaction between the speaker and the listener, and the status of the people involved
2.1.1 Words people use and the style in which they present
2.2 Define: Language used in varying degrees of formality
2.2.1 helps people communicate effectively & interact in an accepted manner
2.2.2 takes into consideration the speaker's & audience's role and what type of relationship the participants have w/ each other
2.3 5 Different Registers
2.3.1 incorporate different linguistic styles in various settings
2.3.1.1 Frozen/Oratorical
2.3.1.1.1 a script to follow as part of a ritual
2.3.1.1.1.1 purpose: to affirm that each participant is part of a larger whole
2.3.1.1.1.1.1 settings: performances, public speeches, & sacred texts
2.3.1.1.1.2 Same words are spoken, no one is aloud to change/paraphase
2.3.1.1.1.3 maybe need to read directly from the text to be sure that the words spoken are those English speakers are expecting to hear
2.3.1.2 Formal
2.3.1.2.1 larger audience; status difference between them & speaker
2.3.1.2.1.1 participants not expected to ask questions, speaker is separated on platform
2.3.1.2.1.2 interpreter not able to ask speaker for clarification
2.3.1.2.1.2.1 but signer will communicate more slowly, articulate signs more carefully, use longer pauses, & use reiteration
2.3.1.2.1.2.1.1 any specialized vocab is more likely to be explained
2.3.1.2.1.2.2 avoid casual words; use specialized & polished vocab; give it that formal "sound"
2.3.1.2.1.2.2.1 ASL depends on presentation style more than sign choice
2.3.1.2.1.2.3 English speakers become uncomfortable with long pauses
2.3.1.2.1.3 settings: presentations & introductions
2.3.1.3 Consultative
2.3.1.3.1 difference in participants status due to some being experts in the discussion material
2.3.1.3.1.1 listeners can ask questions, affirms relationship
2.3.1.3.1.1.1 communicate @ moderate pace, less exaggerated articulation, pausing when necessary
2.3.1.3.1.1.2 classroom: signer checks for understanding & has organized discussion
2.3.1.3.1.1.2.1 but allows flexibility for misunderstandings or other interests
2.3.1.3.1.2 need to be aware of special vocab, or signs that have specific English terms, or initialized signs
2.3.1.4 Casual/Informal
2.3.1.4.1 2+ people know each other, everyone is of equal status
2.3.1.4.1.1 #CLUB signing
2.3.1.4.1.2 harder to understand because quickly sign w/o looking for comprehension, signs may not be clearly or completely articulated, people will overlap
2.3.1.4.1.2.1 can use slang/ shared knowledge if able
2.3.1.5 Intimate
2.3.1.5.1 talk between couples & best friends, have background knowledge & common experience
2.3.1.5.1.1 maintain 1 throughout; familiar w/ events/experiences; comfortable w/ asking Qs & express what s being said
2.4 influence how language is presented; if it is memorized? spontaneous?
2.4.1 More Formal= Less Personal
3 Illocutionary Forces
3.1 the speaker's intention aka purpose underlying the words
3.1.1 Presence signifies that there is more implied than what appears on the surface
3.2 be aware of the intent behind the words
3.2.1 ASL is more explicit in the use of performance verbs
3.2.1.1 Possible to leave out performance verbs because the information will be implied in English
3.2.1.1.1 Help you keep up with the signer
3.2.1.1.2 Complete meaning still conveyed
3.3 Types of English I.F.
3.3.1 Statement: give info
3.3.1.1 RH-Q interpreted as
3.3.2 Question: request info
3.3.3 Command: encourage or solicit an action
3.3.4 Warning: elicit self-protective behavior in the listener
3.3.5 Promise: predict action from the speaker
3.3.6 Threat: intimidate the listener
4 Formulaic Elements of English
4.1 occur in casual/informal along with frozen
4.1.1 storytelling: not every word needs to be exactly the same, just some that enhance the story
4.1.1.1 hints that a fairy tale is being told
4.2 a specific way something is said in a particular setting
5 Working Within a Register
5.1 speaker uses a language based on the occasion, the participants, & their relationship to one another, the topic, & the location
5.2 Appropriate style depends on context of the communication
5.2.1 be aware of who the signer is referring to, identify them by name
5.2.2 settings where more than 1 register appears
5.3 More experience= more comfortable
5.3.1 Don't usually have this, attend events where formal is used
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