Non Verbal Communication

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Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

GCSE Psychology Mind Map on Non Verbal Communication, created by pv7137 on 03/31/2014.

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Created by pv7137 over 5 years ago
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Non Verbal Communication
1 How do we communicate?
1.1 non verbal communication - conveying messages that do not require the use of words or vocal sounds
1.1.1 eye contact
1.1.2 facial expressions
1.1.3 body language
1.2 verbal communication - conveying messages using words or vocal sounds
1.2.1 paralinguistics - vocal features that accompany speech. Emphasis: giving provinence to some words more than others. Intonation: inflection in the voice when speaking
1.3 vocal features that accompany speech
1.3.1 tone of voice
1.3.2 emphasis
1.3.3 intonation
1.4 Evaluation of Studies
1.4.1 these studies help us to understand how some people may have problems getting verbal information across to ther people if their words seem to contradict the tone of voice that they are using
1.4.1.1 it is also true that these studies were carried out in artificial conditions where participants were asked to concentrate on different aspects of the communication.
1.4.1.1.1 in real life, people may not focus so much on these details and be more taken in by the actual words used
2 facial expressions and hemispheres of the brain
2.1 study by Sackiem
2.1.1 other research has shown that our emotions are contained in the right hemispheres of the brain. Sackiems study makes sense as the right hemisphere controls the left side of the body and v.v. therefore, we shoul expect emotion to show more on the left side of teh face
2.1.2 studies that involve still pictures are artificial - dont usually stare at pictures to judge emotions.
2.1.3 we dont look at facial expressions when in isolation with others.
2.1.4 Facial expressions also change constantly when people are together.
2.1.5 other aspects of Non verbal behaviour can give more accurate clues to what they may be thinking - posture or style of dress
2.1.6 Eval points
2.2 Practical Implications
2.2.1 if facial expressions are inherited, it happens instinctively and more likely to be truthful.
2.2.1.1 therefore, if someone is saying happy things with a sad face, the person is more likely to be sad. easy to lie with words but not as easy with facial expressions
2.2.2 Sackiem's study also helps us to understand why we prefer certain picture profiles of ourselves rather than others. we preer to shhow our warm side
3 categories of facial expression
3.1 the 7 facial expressions are recognised by all societies. this means they are inheroted. as humans, there are more muscles in the face than any other animal. facial expressions can change as quickly as 0.2 seconds. all this is controlled by the 2 hemispheres of the brain
4 Functions of Eye contact and Pupil dilation (studies)
4.1 asking people to get acquainted and then observing them is a very artificial situation and participants may have behaved in a different way to normal
4.1.1 studies of eye contact help us to understand what we can do to make conversations run more smoothly
4.1.1.1 studies of pupil dilation help us to understand the use of eye makeup being so popular. it has the effects of making the eyes look darker and larger - seems to be an important unconscious signal for attrcation
4.2 Practical Implications
4.2.1 studies of eye moveents in conversation help us to understand why we might feel uncomfortable talking to to someone who is either constantly looking at us or never looks at us at all - you are never quite sure of when it is your turn to speak
4.2.2 we have no control over pupil dilation - biologically programmed into us. a drawback could be that we cant hide our emotions if we are attracted to someone without wearing dark glasses
5 body language: posture - postural echo, open/closed posture, gesture and touch
5.1 Body Language: A general term to describe aspects of NVC
5.2 Posture
5.2.1 People who are getting on well together tend to adopt each other's posture when conversing - postural echo.
5.2.2 positioning arms and legs so they are folded across thebody and crossing the legs - closed posture. could indicate rejection or disagreement
5.2.3 positioning arms and legs so they are not folded across the body and not crossing the legs - open posture could indicate acceptance and approval
5.2.4 Study on Posture
5.2.4.1 the ndividuals who were approached didnt realise they were participants - deception - unethical
5.2.4.2 there could have been other factors apart from open/closed posture that caused the difference in results. because of the experimental design used, personality differences between the people approached may have made the confederate more appealing to some than to others.
5.2.4.3 Practical Implications
5.2.4.3.1 studies highlight how people in the real world may be using this info to their advantage.
5.2.4.3.1.1 counsillor may adopt postural echo deliberately to develop closer relationships with clients. implication for their counsillors - they may divulge more about themselves to a counsellor who uses postural echo
5.2.4.3.1.2 Sales people use open postures when talking to customers - may help make a sale. implication for customer who doesnt know about these studies is they may not realise how they are being manipulated
5.3 Gestures/ Touch
5.3.1 gestures we make communicate extra info to people. some are deliberate to emphasise what we are saying/affect behaviour of another person
5.3.1.1 someare unconscious and we dont realise we are giving away info - e.g. when nervous, tapping with fingers
5.3.1.2 Study on tipping behaviour
5.3.1.2.1 other differences could have explained the difference for the tips being given - e.g. bill usually affects size of tip.
5.3.1.2.1.1 also, whether the customers were served by someone of same/opposite sex - another factor
5.3.1.2.1.1.1 the study does show how knowledge of the effect of gestures can be used to people's advantage
5.3.2 Touch is another NVC signal. it can produce unconscious emotional reactions and there are huge cultural differences when communicating
5.3.2.1 study on female students in library
5.3.2.1.1 participants were all female - cant be generalised to males
5.3.2.1.2 may be unethical as females did not know until later that they were used as participants in the experiment
5.3.3 Practical implications: waiters trained to squat down when taking orders - could be seen as a friendly gesture but studies such as Lynn and Mernier suggest there could be other motives.
5.3.3.1 studies of touch also show how attitudes in the real world may be manipulated by people who want to win favour
6 factors that affect personal space
6.1 Cultural Norms
6.1.1 study on personal space with Arab/English cultures
6.1.1.1 P.I - the study could help us understand why people in Arab countries regard Europeand/Americans as unfriendly/untrustwrothy as they stand back during conversations.
6.1.1.1.1 also helps us understand why Mediterranean men are seen as romantic by British girls - they stand closer than most british males
6.2 Sex Differences
6.2.1 Study on personal space with diff genders
6.2.1.1 P.I - it could be that when a male is in conversation with a female, he may not be aware that he is standing too close for her comfort
6.3 Status
6.3.1 Zahn study on personal space
6.3.1.1 P.I - this study might imply why it feels more threatening to approach someone of higher status and we show our anxiety by keeping our distance.
6.3.1.1.1 it also implies why we feel more comfortable approaching people of equal status
6.4 Individual Differences
6.4.1 study on personal space with age
6.4.1.1 P.I - people may think that if a person older or younger than themselves stands further away, they are being unfriendly but the research shows this is normal in human behaviour
6.4.1.1.1 also, if we attempt to stand closer to a person younger or oldr, it may cause them to feel uncomfortable
6.4.1.1.1.1 if we are NOT sensitive to personality differences between us and people we talk to, we mightn't realise we are causing them discomfort by standing too close to them
6.5 the distance that feels comfortable between you and the other person and is kept between us and other people in our everyday lives
6.6 Evaluation
6.6.1 the reulsts could be misleading as these factors don't operate in isolation from other aspects of NVC - facial expression could affect our use of personal space.
6.6.2 also, when we are with people we use a number of different distances depending on what is happening and the amount of space available.
6.6.3 how much we like the other person or if we have an outgoing/reserved personality come into play

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