1.1.1 This is similar to the biological approach (genes and
hormones), behaviourist approach (stimulus and response), SLT
(observation) and cognitive (stimulus, organism and response).
1.2 Karl Popper argued that the unconscious
is unscientific and unfalsifiable.
1.3 The humanistic approach would argue that
people have free will, choice and control.
2 You can tap into the unconscious
mind using psychoanalysis.
2.1 Free association
2.1.1 The 'talking cure' is where the client can
talk about their problems and analyse
2.1.2 This only works with patients who
are articulate about their problems.
2.1.3 This wouldn't work with child abuse
cases, schizophrenics or autistics.
22.214.171.124 Dolls are used with child abuse cases.
2.1.4 Ink blots allow the child to respond
to a visual stimulus or prop.
2.2 Dream analysis
2.2.1 This involves the assumption that our hidden wishes, desires and
fears are repressed in our unconscious and manifest in our dreams.
2.3.1 This is a sleep altered state of consciousness
where a person may perform involuntary actions
and have a distorted memory after the session
2.4 It allows us to treat mental disorders such as
depression, anxiety disorders and phobias.
2.5 It is still used today and so is a valuable to psychology.
2.6 The therapist has all the power, it
is directive and it is subjective.
2.7 The following agencies use psychoanalysis,
successfully are police agencies, social services,
psychatric institutions and the mental profession.
3 Freud believed we are motivated by two instinctual drives known as Eros
(life instinct) and Thanatos (death, destruction and aggression).
3.1 This is similar to the biological approach and Darwin's evolution
theory: 'survival of the fittest'. We have an innate mechanism of
reproduction. However, the biological approach would argue
aggression is a result of testosterone and genes (XYY).
3.2 SLT would argue aggression was a result of
observation of an aggressive role model.
4 The psychodynamic approach suggests that we go through
conflicts throughout life, these are due to a struggle between
the id and superego. This is a pessimistic view of life.
4.1 This is in contrast to the optimistic view of the humanistic approach which
believe we are growth seeking individuals seeking for self-actualisation.
5 Karl Popper would argue there is no evidence that defence mechanisms exist.
5.1 This does not work long-term.
5.2 Repression is forcing a threatening or
distressing memory/ feeling out of
consciousness and making it unconscious.
5.3 Denial is failing/refusing to
some aspect of reality.
5.4 Reaction formation is
consciously feeling/thinking the
opposite of your true
5.5 Case study: Wright and Lohr.
5.5.1 The aim was to investigate whether homophobia is
associated with homosexual arousal and whether
homophobia was caused by reaction formation.
5.5.2 A group of heterosexual men were assessed on homosexuality using a questionnaire to
measure whether they are homophobic or not. Both homophobic and non-homophobic
men were shown gay, lesbian and heterosexual explicit videos. Sexual arousal was
measured using a pressure ring and they were asked to estimate their arousal.
6 Psychosexual stages determine our adult personality and we go
through them in childhood: oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital.
6.1 Throughout each stage, the libido (sexual
energy) is focused on an erogenous zone.
6.2 An over/under stimulation at any stage results in fixation which can be
seen in characteristics attached to the stage during adult personality.
Failure to do this, fixation can lead to neuroses in adult life.
6.3 Oral stage (-18 months): the erogenous
zone is your mouth. As a result of fixation,
behaviours can arise in personality.
6.4 Anal stage (18-36 months): the erogenous zone is your anus.
6.4.1 Harsh parenting results in anally retentive
with mean and tight fisted behaviour.
6.4.2 Lenient parenting results in anally
receptive with generous behaviour.
6.5 Phallic (3-6 years): the erogenous zone is your genitals.
6.5.1 Oedipus complex
126.96.36.199 This affects males aged 5 where they have a sexual attraction to their mother and fear
castration from their father. To resolve the conflict, they identify with the same sex parent
(dad). This is through activities (such as DIY) and they gain their superego and gender.
6.5.2 Electra complex
188.8.131.52 This affects females aged 5 where they have penis
envy as a result of hating their mother because they
are incomplete. This converts to penis baby project
which is a desire to have a baby. To resolve this
conflict, they identify with the same sex parent (mam)
and this is through activities (such as cooking) and
they gain their superego and gender.
6.5.3 Fixation could result in masculine characteristics in
females (e.g. tomboys) and feminine characteristics
6.5.4 SLT agrees with Freud's concept of identification,
however, they believe you can identify with any role
model and doesn't just apply to the same sex parent.
6.6 Latency (6 years-): the libido is submerged.
6.7 Genital (puberty-): this is where there is an interest in the
opposite sex and sexual pleasure.
6.7.1 Fixation at this stage can result in nymphomaniacs, playboys and rapists.
7 Freud proposed the iceberg theory. There are three
sections: the conscious (aware of), preconscious
(semi-aware) and unconscious (unaware of).
7.1 The unconscious mind is where the hidden
wishes, desires and fears are repressed.
7.2 Defence mechanisms can be used to resolve
conflict between the suerego and the id.
8 The libido is a sexual energy which is
present in the id and Eros. The id and the
superego never comes into contact.