Learning

Darby Milman
Mind Map by Darby Milman, updated more than 1 year ago
Darby Milman
Created by Darby Milman almost 4 years ago
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Mind Map for chapter 6 psychology 104
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Learning
1 Classical Conditioning
1.1 Definition: A type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus (Pavlovian Conditioning)
1.2 Terminology
1.2.1 Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS): Is a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning.
1.2.2 Unconditioned Response (UCR): An unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without the previous conditioning.
1.2.3 Conditioned Stimulus (CS): A previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response.
1.2.4 Conditioned Response (CR): A learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning.
1.2.5 Trial: Consists of any presentation of a stimulus or pair of stimuli
1.3 Evaluative Conditioning: Refers to changes in the liking of a stimulus that result from pairing that stimulus with other positive or negative stimuli
1.4 Acquisition: Refers to the initial stage of learning something
1.5 Extinction: The gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency
1.6 Spontaneous Recovery: The reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus
1.7 Renewal Effect: If a response is extinguished in a different environment than it was acquired, the extinguished response will reappear if the animal is returned to the original environment where acquisition took place
1.8 Stimulus Generalization: Occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus
1.9 Stimulus Discrimination: Occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus
1.10 Higher-Order Conditioning: A conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus
1.11 Preparedness: Involves a species-specific predisposition to be conditioned in certain ways and not others
2 Definition: Is any relatively durable change in behaviour or knowledge that is due to experience
3 Operant Conditioning
3.1 Definition: is a form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences (Instrumental Learning)
3.2 Law Of Effect: If a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effects, the association between the stimulus and the response is strengthened
3.3 Reinforcement: Occurs when an event following a response increases an organism's tendency to make that response
3.4 Terminology
3.4.1 Operant Chamber (Skinner Box): A small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is recorded while the consequences of the response are systematically controlled.
3.4.2 Reinforcement Contingencies: The circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of reinforcers
3.4.3 Cumulative Recorder: Creates a graphic record of responding and reinforcement in a Skinner box as a function of time
3.4.4 Primary Reinforcers: Events that are inherently reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs
3.4.5 Secondary (Conditioned) Reinforcers: Events that acquire reinforcing qualities by being associated with primary reinforcers.
3.5 Shaping: Consists of the reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired response
3.6 Resistance to Extinction: Occurs when an organism continues to make a response after delivery of the reinforcer has been terminated
3.7 Discriminative Stimuli: Cues that influence operant behaviour by indicating the probable consequences (reinforcement or nonreinforcment) of a response
3.8 Schedules of Reinforcement
3.8.1 Determines which occurrences of a specific response results in the presentation of a reinforcer
3.8.2 Continuous Reinforcement: Occurs when every instance of a designated response is reinforced.
3.8.3 Intermitted (Partial) Reinforcement: Occurs when a designated response is reinforced only some of the time
3.8.4 Fixed-Ratio (FR) Schedule: The reinforcer is given after a fixed number of nonreinforced responses
3.8.5 Variable-Ratio (VR) Schedule: The reinforcer is given after a variable number of nonreinforced responses
3.8.6 Fixed-Interval (FI) Schedule: The reinforcer is given for the first response that occurs after a fixed time interval has elapsed
3.8.7 Variable-Interval (VI) Schedule: The reinforcer is given for the first response after a variable time interval has elapsed
3.9 Positive Reinforcement: Occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the presentation of a rewarding stimulus
3.10 Negative Reinforcement: Occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the removal of an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus
3.11 Escape Learning: An organism acquires a response that decreases or ends some aversive stimulation
3.12 Avoidance Learning: An organism acquires a response that prevents some aversive stimulation from occurring
3.13 Punishment: Occurs when an event following a response weakens the tendency to make that response
3.14 Instinctive Drift: Occurs when an animal's innate response tendencies interfere with conditioning processes
4 Observational Learning
4.1 Definition: Occurs when an organism's responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models.
4.2 Basic Processes:
4.2.1 Attention
4.2.2 Retention
4.2.3 Reproduction
4.2.4 Motivation
4.3 Mirror neurons: Neurons that are activated by performing an action or by seeing another monkey or person perform the same action
4.4 Behaviour Modification: A systematic approach to changing behaviour through the supplication of the principles of conditioning
4.5 Antecedents: Events that typically precede the target response
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