Vitamins I

hardinbc
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Biochemistry Mind Map on Vitamins I, created by hardinbc on 05/05/2013.

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hardinbc
Created by hardinbc over 6 years ago
Enzyme Classification
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Vitamins I
1 Characteristics
1.1 essential
1.1.1 cannot be synthesized
1.2 organic
1.3 specialized functions
1.3.1 catalytic roles
1.3.2 hormones
1.3.3 antioxidants
1.4 from cellular foods
1.5 classification
1.5.1 water soluble
1.5.1.1 cellular metabolism
1.5.1.1.1 energy supplying
1.5.1.2 contain H+
1.5.1.2.1 attached to electronegative atom
1.5.1.2.2 form H bonds w/ H2O
1.5.1.3 do not accumulate
1.5.1.3.1 need regular supply
1.5.1.4 B1, B2, B6, B12
1.5.1.5 folate, pantothenate, biotin
1.5.2 fat soluble
1.5.2.1 specialized functions
2 vitamin B3
2.1 Pellagra
2.1.1 dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, death
2.1.1.1 1920 epidemic
2.1.2 Casal's necklace
2.1.3 disease of malnutrition
2.2 niacin
2.2.1 pellagra preventative factor
2.2.2 sources
2.2.2.1 food
2.2.2.1.1 liver, meats peanuts, legumes, whole wheat
2.2.2.1.2 enriched grains
2.2.2.2 tryptophan
2.2.3 roles
2.2.3.1 vitamin
2.2.3.1.1 part of NADH and NADPH
2.2.3.1.1.1 15 mg/day
2.2.3.2 non-vitamin
2.2.3.2.1 vasodilator
2.2.3.2.2 lower plasma cholesterol levels
2.2.3.2.2.1 increase HDL
2.2.3.2.3 increase serum glucose and uric acid
3 Vitamin B1
3.1 thiamine
3.2 cofactor
3.2.1 pyruvate decarboxylase
3.2.2 a-ketoglutarate decarboxylase
3.2.3 transketolase
3.2.4 aa catabolism
3.2.4.1 a-ketoacid decarboxylase
3.3 transmits nerve impulses
3.4 food sources
3.4.1 brown rice, whole wheat, enrich grains, animal tissues, seeds, sprouts
3.5 deficiencies
3.5.1 Beriberi
3.5.1.1 peripheral neuropathy
3.5.1.2 muscle atrophy, weakness
3.5.1.2.1 heart failure
3.5.1.2.1.1 high cardiac output
3.5.1.3 wet Beriberi
3.5.1.3.1 edema
3.5.2 Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
3.5.2.1 inhibition of absorption
3.5.2.1.1 alcohol
3.5.2.2 mental confusion
3.5.2.3 vision impairment
3.5.2.4 stupor
3.5.2.5 coma
3.5.2.6 hypothermia
3.5.2.7 hypotension
3.5.2.8 ataxia
3.5.3 in elderly
3.5.3.1 loss of appetite
3.5.3.2 fatigue
3.5.3.3 depression
4 Vitamin B2
4.1 heat stable
4.2 precursor
4.2.1 FMN, FAD
4.2.1.1 cofactors of
4.2.1.1.1 ETC
4.2.1.1.2 xanthine oxidase
4.2.1.1.2.1 hypoxanthine --> xanthine --> uric acid
4.2.1.1.3 succinate dehydrogenase
4.2.1.1.4 glutathione reductase
4.3 food sources
4.3.1 milk, eggs, liver, wheat germ, green veggies
4.4 deficiency
4.4.1 oral-buccal lesions
4.4.2 dermatitis
4.4.3 chronic alcoholics
5 Vitamin B6
5.1 three molecules
5.1.1 pyridoxine
5.1.2 pyridoxamine
5.1.3 pyridoxal
5.2 catalyze rxns
5.2.1 transamination
5.2.2 deamination
5.2.3 decarboxylation
5.3 requirements
5.3.1 high protein diets
5.3.2 pregnancy
5.4 heat labile
5.4.1 convulsions
5.5 deficiency
5.5.1 weakness
5.5.2 irritability
5.5.3 insomnia
5.5.4 dermatitis
5.5.5 microcytic anemia
5.5.5.1 iron deficienccy
5.5.5.1.1 impaired heme synthesis
6 Pantothenic acid
6.1 sulfhydryl group
6.1.1 CoA
6.1.2 ACP
6.2 roles
6.2.1 TCA cycle
6.2.2 FA synthesis
6.2.3 metabolism BCAA
6.2.4 conjugated bile acid synthesis
6.3 deficiency
6.3.1 rare
7 Biotin
7.1 roles
7.1.1 carboxylation
7.1.1.1 pyruvate --> OAA
7.1.1.2 acetyl-CoA --> malonyl-CoA
7.1.1.3 proprionyl-CoA --> methylmalonyl-CoA --> succinyl-CoA
7.1.1.4 leucine catabolism
7.1.1.4.1 methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase
7.1.2 non-carboxylaiton
7.1.2.1 alter chromatin structure
7.1.2.1.1 biotinylated histones
7.1.2.2 cell signaling/gene expresision
7.2 sources
7.2.1 liver, milk, plants
7.3 deficiency
7.3.1 rare
7.3.2 egg whites
7.3.2.1 avidin
7.3.2.1.1 binds tightly, prevent absorption
7.3.3 dermatitis, alopecia, enteritis
8 Folic acid
8.1 enzymatic role
8.1.1 transfer 1 C group
8.1.2 synthesis
8.1.2.1 choline, serine, glyciine, purines, dTMP
8.1.3 regeneration
8.1.3.1 homocysteine --> methionine
8.2 sources
8.2.1 leafy veggies, yeast, liver
8.3 deficiency
8.3.1 affects rapid dividing cells
8.3.2 megaloblastic anemia
8.3.3 leukopenia
8.3.4 gastric disturbances
8.3.5 early pregnancy
8.3.5.1 neural tube defects
8.3.5.1.1 supplement prior to conception
9 Vitamin B12
9.1 cobalamin
9.2 catalyze rxns
9.2.1 homocysteine --> methionine
9.2.2 methylmalonyl-CoA --> succinyl-CoA
9.3 sources
9.3.1 animal tissues/bacteria only
9.3.2 body has stores
9.3.2.1 3-5 years --> deficiency
9.4 deficiency
9.4.1 pernicious anemia
9.4.1.1 problem of malabsorption
9.4.1.1.1 lack intrinsic factor
9.4.1.1.1.1 inadequate absorption
9.4.1.1.2 lack of stomach acid
9.4.1.1.2.1 doesnt release B12 from food
9.4.1.1.3 increased in elderly
9.4.2 dietary
9.4.2.1 vegans
9.4.2.1.1 breast fed infants
9.4.3 symptoms
9.4.3.1 megaloblastic anemia
9.4.3.1.1 impaired DNA synthesis
9.4.3.2 progressive demyelination
10 Vitamin C
10.1 L-ascorbic acid
10.1.1 glucose derivative
10.1.1.1 gluconolactone oxidase
10.1.1.1.1 lacking in humans
10.2 water soluble
10.3 cofactor
10.3.1 hydroxylation of proline
10.3.1.1 procollagen
10.3.1.1.1 Scurvy
10.3.2 dopamine --> NE
10.3.3 synthesis
10.3.3.1 bile acids
10.3.3.2 corticosteroids
10.3.3.3 carnitine
10.4 non-enzymatic roles
10.4.1 enhance iron absorption
10.4.2 protects vit A, E, some B
10.4.3 electron acceptor
10.4.3.1 OH-, O2
10.5 glutathione regenerates
10.5.1 dehydroascorbate + 2CSH --> ascorbin acid + GSSG

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