Africa - Climate Change

Jodie Goodacre
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

A-Levels Geography (World at risk) Mind Map on Africa - Climate Change, created by Jodie Goodacre on 05/05/2013.

Jodie Goodacre
Created by Jodie Goodacre over 6 years ago
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Africa - Climate Change
1 Situated South of Europe, West of Asia and East of South America
2 Covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the Earth's land mass
3 Around 30.2 km sq in land size
4 Africa contains 54 countries including Madagascar
5 Mediterranean sea (North)
6 Indian Ocean, Red sea, Gulf of Aden and Arabian sea (East)
7 Mozambique channel (South-east)
8 South Atlantic Ocean (South-west)
9 Gulf of Guinea (West)
10 North Atlantic ocean (North-west)
11 Contributes least to the enhanced greenhouse effect
12 Suffer the most as a result of global warming
13 Most of the African population relies on climate-sensitive resources such as local water and eco-systems
14 Has a limited ability to adapt to climate change
15 2/3 of African countries are within the world's 50 poorest countries
16 34% of the population ages 15-24 are illiterate
17 Poor economy 1/3 live in absolute poverty
18 It has been predicted that in Africa there will be an overall increase of 3-4 degrees above the global average by 2100
19 In the regional section along the equatorial parts of Africa rainfall is likely to increase - However will decrease in the North and South
20 As rainfall becomes more variable, competition for water is likely to arise between countries, particularly when Africa's largest rivers such as the Nile cross national borders
21 As scarcity increases, so does dependence on poor-quality sources
22 Increase in water borne diseases such as cholera, this therefore puts more pressure on heath-care systems and government budgets
23 Most of the African continent is dependent on agriculture and will be affected by decreased rainfall
24 In 2007 it was said that 14 African countries were suffering from water scarcity and by 2032 11 more countries will join them
25 Half of the African population are earning less than $1 a day
26 Political turmoil within Africa could mean that the correct responses are not made
27 More than 60% of world population growth between 2008 - 2100 will be in sub-Saharan Africa
28 75% of African population live in rural areas
29 1/3 of the population are living in drought prone areas
30 More than 1/4 of the population live along the coast therefore will be affected by sea level rise
31 Africa is already struggling with health problems with two million people dying from aids each year
32 Low life expectancy and high infant mortality
33 Weak governance
34 Much has been invested in Africa in terms of capacity building, but more is needed to enhance the adaptive capacity of businesses and individuals
35 Deteriorating ecological base
36 Widespread poverty
37 Inequitable land distribution
38 High dependence on natural resource base
39 Improving adaptive capacity is important in order to reduce vulnerability to climate change
40 Lack of clean secure water
41 Lack of water for subsistence farmers
42 Population growth of 3%
43 Rapid urbanisation leads to more people becoming vulnerable
44 Poor quality of housing in high risk locations
45 Food insecurity
46 Corrupt governments
47 Low literacy
48 Widespread ill health AIDS/HIV/Malaria/Cholera
49 Many live below the poverty line ($1 a day)
50 Environmental degration
51 Demand outweighs the supply of water for 25% of Africans
52 Water stress could lead to wars, global migration and famine
53 Movement of environmental refugees from the countryside puts pressure on coastal zones
54 60% of Africans live in coastal zones, many of which are at risk from erosion and flooding
55 If the coastal zones were flooded, much of the continent's infrastructure of roads, bridges and buildings would also be lost
56 70% of the population are subsistence farms
57 Water supplies dry up
58 Pasture quality deteriorate or crops fail
59 Increased locust plagues may threaten food supplies
60 Inadequate health care systems
61 Malaria free highland areas in Ethiopia, Kenya Rwanda and Burundi could also experience incidences of malaria by 2050s, with the conditions for transmission becoming highly suitable
62 Having to export their products at a low price due to unjust trading systems
63 The burden of un-payable debt means that no money is available for the mitigation or the introduction of adaptation strategies
64 A study in Uganda concluded that an increase in temperature of an average of 2 degrees would drastically reduce the area suitable for growing Robusta coffee in Uganda, where it is a major export crop and limit growth to the highlands only
65 Water sources are becoming intermittent or disappearing; streams that used to run year-round are now seasonal
66 By 2020, 75-250 million people are estimated to be exposed to increased water stress as a result of climate change
67 Climate change will result in the loss of species and extinction of many plants
68 Changes in a variety of ecosystems are already being detected, particularly in Southern Africa - at a faster rate than anticipated
69 Highly diverse in fauna and flora
70 Africa contains about a fifth of all know species of plants, mammals and birds in the world, and a sixth of the amphibians and reptiles
71 Biological hotspots - Western Indian ocean islands, The Cape Region, The succulent Karoo (most species rich desert in the world), the upper Guinea forest and the Eastern Arc Mountain forests of East Africa
72 Climate change will trigger species migration
73 One study examining over 5,000 African plant species predicts that 81-97% of plant species' suitable habitats will decrease in size of shift due to climate change
74 By 2085 between 25% and 42% of the species's habitats are expected to be lost altogether
75 Equatorial Guinea may benefit financially due to better conditions
76 Tropical areas experience longer growing periods
77 Animals attracted to water wells
78 Increase in tourism

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