Neuronal Growth Factors and Neuronal Death

zambrella
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Biochemistry (Cellular Neurobiology) Mind Map on Neuronal Growth Factors and Neuronal Death, created by zambrella on 05/05/2013.

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zambrella
Created by zambrella over 6 years ago
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Neuronal Growth Factors and Neuronal Death
1 What determines the fate of a cell
1.1 Influence of neural growth inducers and inhibitors, which is dependent on cell location in the developing nervous system
1.2 Cell proliferation and migration
1.3 Migration
1.3.1 Movement of neuron along radial glia
1.4 Sonic hedgehog is mainly involved in proliferation step
1.5 Neurotrophins mainly involved in survival
2 Neurotrophins
2.1 Types
2.1.1 NGF
2.1.1.1 Nerve growth factor
2.1.2 BDNF
2.1.3 NT-3
2.1.4 NT-4
2.2 Effects
2.2.1 Survival - prevent cell death
2.2.2 Growth - stimulate axonal and dendrite growth
2.2.3 Sprouting - stimulate multiple projections
2.2.3.1 Boutons are small projections that increase cell density along the nerve
2.2.4 Increase soma size
2.2.5 Promote neuronal differentiation
2.2.6 Stimulate increased production of neurotransmitter
2.2.7 Electrical sensitivity - alter levels and activity of ion channels
3 Receptors for neurotrophins
3.1 Trk ((RTK) receptor tyrosine kinase) receptor family
3.2 P75 receptors (common receptor)
3.3 Activation of receptor can be activated in different ways
3.3.1 e.g. dimerisation
3.4 There can be cross-talk between 2 receptors
3.4.1 Allows for different responses
4 What happens to neurons that do not succeed in finding the neurotrophins?
4.1 Neural cells undergo cell death, usually via apoptosis
4.2 How do neurons die?
4.2.1 Apoptosis
4.2.1.1 Developmental stages
4.2.1.2 Pathological conditions
4.2.2 Excitotoxic cell death
4.2.2.1 Hypoxia
4.2.2.2 Over stimulation by neurotransmitters (e.g. glutamate)
5 The brain makes new neurons throughout life
6 Neuronal plsticity
7 Potential to repair itself after injury or disease

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