Operant conditioning

Greenbird
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

A Levels Psychology Mind Map on Operant conditioning, created by Greenbird on 04/04/2014.

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Greenbird
Created by Greenbird over 5 years ago
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Operant conditioning
1 Learning much more active than in classical conditioning
2 Based on work of Thorndike
3 Learning a behaviour because of its consequences
3.1 Consequences are rewarding or punishing
3.1.1 Make behaviour more or less likely
3.2 Positive/negative reinforcement
3.3 Positive/negative punishment
4 Skinner (1904-1990)
4.1 Radical behaviourism: should only use scientific methods to study human and animal behaviour
4.1.1 All behaviour learned from consequences, called this operant conditioning
4.1.1.1 His focus was on effects of emitted behaviour rather than Pavlov's focus on the elicited behaviours themselves
4.2 1938, placed pigeon in Skinner box.
4.2.1 Pecking at lever would lead to food being delivered
4.2.1.1 Pecked randomly at first and accidentally pecked lever stimulus - S - and received reward - R.
4.2.1.1.1 Reward was reinforcement, which stamped-in rewarded behaviour
4.2.1.1.1.1 Unrewarded behaviour stamped out
4.2.1.1.1.1.1 Behaviour brought under stimulus control
4.2.1.1.1.2 Stronger reinforcement = more stamping in
4.2.2 If pigeon also learns to get food by pecking at a button when it is lit up it is learning to discriminate between states of illumination (a discriminative simulus)
4.3 Hungry rat in box: inside box was lever which would dispense food when pressed
4.3.1 Rat first had to learn this lever-pressing behaviour, so food dispensed every time it approached the lever at first
4.3.1.1 When rat pressed lever food was dispensed
4.3.1.1.1 Rat then kept pressing lever to get food (reward
4.3.1.1.1.1 Behaviour positively reinforced
5 Skinner described OC in terms of ABC
5.1 Antecedents: situation beforehand
5.2 Behaviour: what the animal does
5.3 Consequences: the probability of a behaviour being repeated depends on strengthening or weakening S-R links
6 Most human behaviour relies not on primary reinforcers (food, water etc.) but on secondary reinforcers (money, tokens, career success, etc.)
6.1 Secondary reinforcer is neutral stimulus that acquires reinforcing properties because it can be linked with a primary reinforcer (e.g. exchanging money for food)
7 Principles applied to many areas, e.g. education, prisons and psychiatric institutions
7.1 Used to modify speech in autistic children
7.1.1 When a child has under-developed speech, therapist uses a behaviour-shaping technique
7.1.1.1 When child begins to imitate therapist's speech/behaviour, s/he receives praise as a reward - a positive reinforcer
7.1.1.1.1 Continues until child can use words independently and without prompting

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