Vitamins II

hardinbc
Mind Map by hardinbc, updated more than 1 year ago
hardinbc
Created by hardinbc almost 7 years ago
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Biochemistry Mind Map on Vitamins II, created by hardinbc on 05/05/2013.
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Vitamins II
1 Vitamin K
1.1 K1
1.1.1 plants
1.1.1.1 long, saturdated side chain
1.2 K2
1.2.1 fish
1.2.1.1 polyprenyl side chain
1.3 menadione
1.3.1 synthetic
1.3.1.1 water soluble
1.3.1.1.1 activated in liver
1.3.1.1.1.1 prenylation
1.4 enzymatic cofactor
1.4.1 carboxylation
1.4.1.1 glutamate residues
1.4.1.1.1 requires O2
1.4.2 substrates
1.4.2.1 prothrombiin
1.4.2.1.1 needs Ca, post-trans mod
1.4.2.1.1.1 active thrombin
1.4.2.1.2 anticoagulant drugs
1.4.2.1.2.1 dicumarol, warfarin
1.4.2.1.2.2 inhibit reductase
1.4.2.1.2.2.1 cannot convert oxidized K back to K
1.4.2.2 osteoalcin
1.4.2.2.1 binds Ca
1.4.2.2.2 regulates mineralization
1.5 nutrition
1.5.1 sources
1.5.1.1 leafy veggies, grains, liver
1.5.2 deficiency
1.5.2.1 increased coagulation time
1.5.2.2 impaired clotting, bruising
1.5.2.3 hemorrhagic disease of newborn
1.5.2.4 impaired fetal develoment of bony tissue
1.5.3 excess
1.5.3.1 infant
1.5.3.1.1 hemolytic anemia, jaundice
2 Vitamin A
2.1 forms
2.1.1 active form
2.1.1.1 all-trans-retinol
2.1.2 provitamin
2.1.2.1 B-carotene
2.1.2.1.1 antioxidant
2.1.2.1.1.1 cleave --> retinal
2.1.2.1.1.1.1 retinal reductasse --> retiol
2.1.2.1.1.1.2 only in intestinal mucosa
2.1.2.1.1.2 excess
2.1.2.1.1.2.1 not as teratogenic
2.1.2.1.1.3 inhibit lipid peroxidation
2.2 roles
2.2.1 visual cycle
2.2.1.1 11-cis retinal
2.2.1.1.1 pigments
2.2.1.1.2 rhodopsin
2.2.1.1.2.1 photosensitive, 7 pass transmembrane
2.2.1.1.2.1.1 retinal rods
2.2.1.1.2.1.2 11-cis-retinal bound to opsin
2.2.1.1.2.1.2.1 retinal is fat soluble
2.2.1.1.2.1.2.1.1 to liver in chylomicrons
2.2.1.1.2.1.2.1.1.1 stored in stellate cells
2.2.1.1.2.1.2.1.1.1.1 retinyl esters
2.2.1.1.3 light converts to all-trans-retinal
2.2.1.1.3.1 signaling - cGMP phosphodiesterase, transducin
2.2.1.1.3.1.1 close Na channel, hyperpolarization
2.2.1.1.3.1.1.1 signals by optic nerve to brain
2.2.2 hormonal reg gene expression
2.2.2.1 all-trans retinoic acid
2.2.2.1.1 activates RAR and RXR
2.2.2.2 9-cis retinoic acid
2.2.2.2.1 activates only RXR
2.2.2.2.1.1 heterdimerizes w/
2.2.2.2.1.1.1 receptors
2.2.2.2.1.1.1.1 vitt D
2.2.2.2.1.1.1.2 thyroid hormone
2.2.2.2.1.1.1.3 PPAR
2.2.2.2.1.1.2 transcription factors
2.2.2.3 RAR, RXR
2.2.2.3.1 bind response elements
2.2.2.3.1.1 promoter region
2.2.2.3.2 active
2.2.2.3.2.1 homo or heterodimers
2.2.2.4 > 500 genes
2.2.3 glycoprotein synthesis
2.3 deficiency
2.3.1 night-blindness
2.3.2 permanent ocular degeneration/blindness
2.3.2.1 lose vitreal fluid
2.3.2.1.1 extrude lens
2.3.2.2 lack of retinoic acid
2.3.3 lose hormonal activity
2.3.3.1 respiratory/urinary infection
2.4 excess
2.4.1 liver disease
2.4.2 teratogenicity
2.4.3 bone defects
3 Vtamin D
3.1 cholecalciferol
3.1.1 rxn of UV light w/ 7-dehydrocholesterol
3.2 active form
3.2.1 hydroxylations --> calcitriol
3.2.2 circulating form
3.2.2.1 25-hydroxxycholecalciferol
3.3 roles
3.3.1 Ca absorption in gut
3.3.1.1 adequate serum [Ca] an [PO4-]
3.3.2 bone growth/remodeling
3.3.3 modulates
3.3.3.1 neuromuscular and immune function
3.3.3.1.1 reduce inflammation
3.3.3.2 gene expression
3.3.3.2.1 cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis
3.4 sources
3.4.1 sunshine, food, fortified foods
3.5 deficiency
3.5.1 rickets
3.5.2 osteomalacia
3.6 excess
3.6.1 hypercalcemia
3.6.1.1 metastatic calcifications
3.6.1.2 bone demineralization
3.6.1.3 renal stones
4 Vitamin E
4.1 vitamers
4.1.1 8 compounds
4.1.2 tocopherols
4.1.2.1 saturated phytyl tail
4.1.3 tocotrienols
4.1.3.1 trienols
4.1.3.2 unsaturated phytyl tail
4.2 active form
4.2.1 a-tocopherol
4.2.1.1 phenolic ring most is effective
4.2.1.1.1 donates H+
4.2.1.1.1.1 terminates free radicals
4.3 sources
4.3.1 veggie oils, fatty tissues of animals
4.4 antioxidant
4.4.1 free radical scavenger
4.4.1.1 protects PUFA in membrane
4.4.2 terminates free radical lipid peroxidation
4.4.3 prevent heart disease?
4.4.3.1 limit oxidation of LDL-cholesterol
4.4.3.2 Enter text here
4.5 deficiency
4.5.1 fragility/destruction
4.5.1.1 erythrocytes
4.5.2 nerve degeneration
4.5.2.1 hands/feet
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