Vitamins II

Mind Map by hardinbc, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by hardinbc almost 7 years ago


Biochemistry Mind Map on Vitamins II, created by hardinbc on 05/05/2013.

Resource summary

Vitamins II
1 Vitamin K
1.1 K1
1.1.1 plants long, saturdated side chain
1.2 K2
1.2.1 fish polyprenyl side chain
1.3 menadione
1.3.1 synthetic water soluble activated in liver prenylation
1.4 enzymatic cofactor
1.4.1 carboxylation glutamate residues requires O2
1.4.2 substrates prothrombiin needs Ca, post-trans mod active thrombin anticoagulant drugs dicumarol, warfarin inhibit reductase cannot convert oxidized K back to K osteoalcin binds Ca regulates mineralization
1.5 nutrition
1.5.1 sources leafy veggies, grains, liver
1.5.2 deficiency increased coagulation time impaired clotting, bruising hemorrhagic disease of newborn impaired fetal develoment of bony tissue
1.5.3 excess infant hemolytic anemia, jaundice
2 Vitamin A
2.1 forms
2.1.1 active form all-trans-retinol
2.1.2 provitamin B-carotene antioxidant cleave --> retinal retinal reductasse --> retiol only in intestinal mucosa excess not as teratogenic inhibit lipid peroxidation
2.2 roles
2.2.1 visual cycle 11-cis retinal pigments rhodopsin photosensitive, 7 pass transmembrane retinal rods 11-cis-retinal bound to opsin retinal is fat soluble to liver in chylomicrons stored in stellate cells retinyl esters light converts to all-trans-retinal signaling - cGMP phosphodiesterase, transducin close Na channel, hyperpolarization signals by optic nerve to brain
2.2.2 hormonal reg gene expression all-trans retinoic acid activates RAR and RXR 9-cis retinoic acid activates only RXR heterdimerizes w/ receptors vitt D thyroid hormone PPAR transcription factors RAR, RXR bind response elements promoter region active homo or heterodimers > 500 genes
2.2.3 glycoprotein synthesis
2.3 deficiency
2.3.1 night-blindness
2.3.2 permanent ocular degeneration/blindness lose vitreal fluid extrude lens lack of retinoic acid
2.3.3 lose hormonal activity respiratory/urinary infection
2.4 excess
2.4.1 liver disease
2.4.2 teratogenicity
2.4.3 bone defects
3 Vtamin D
3.1 cholecalciferol
3.1.1 rxn of UV light w/ 7-dehydrocholesterol
3.2 active form
3.2.1 hydroxylations --> calcitriol
3.2.2 circulating form 25-hydroxxycholecalciferol
3.3 roles
3.3.1 Ca absorption in gut adequate serum [Ca] an [PO4-]
3.3.2 bone growth/remodeling
3.3.3 modulates neuromuscular and immune function reduce inflammation gene expression cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis
3.4 sources
3.4.1 sunshine, food, fortified foods
3.5 deficiency
3.5.1 rickets
3.5.2 osteomalacia
3.6 excess
3.6.1 hypercalcemia metastatic calcifications bone demineralization renal stones
4 Vitamin E
4.1 vitamers
4.1.1 8 compounds
4.1.2 tocopherols saturated phytyl tail
4.1.3 tocotrienols trienols unsaturated phytyl tail
4.2 active form
4.2.1 a-tocopherol phenolic ring most is effective donates H+ terminates free radicals
4.3 sources
4.3.1 veggie oils, fatty tissues of animals
4.4 antioxidant
4.4.1 free radical scavenger protects PUFA in membrane
4.4.2 terminates free radical lipid peroxidation
4.4.3 prevent heart disease? limit oxidation of LDL-cholesterol Enter text here
4.5 deficiency
4.5.1 fragility/destruction erythrocytes
4.5.2 nerve degeneration hands/feet
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