Bones of lower limb

 Eugene McLaughlin
Mind Map by , created almost 3 years ago

Osteopathy Mind Map on Bones of lower limb, created by Eugene McLaughlin on 12/13/2016.

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 Eugene McLaughlin
Created by Eugene McLaughlin almost 3 years ago
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Bones of lower limb
1 Tibia & Fibula
1.1 Articulates with femoral condyles - proximally
1.2 Articulates with talus - distally
1.3 Fibula is for muscle attachment but also supports ankle joint
1.4 Connected by dense oblique fibres
1.4.1 Interosseous membrane
2 Femur
2.1 Shaft
2.1.1 Linea aspera
2.1.1.1 Aponeurotic attachment for thigh muscles
2.1.1.2 Divides the supracondylar lines
2.1.1.2.1 Leading to the medial & lateral epicondyles
2.1.1.2.1.1 Medial & lateral condyles - inferior too
2.1.1.2.1.1.1 Femoral condyles articulate with menisci
2.1.1.2.1.1.1.1 Menisci - plates of fibrocartilage
2.1.1.2.1.1.1.2 Femoral condyles articulate with tibia plateau via menisci
2.1.1.2.1.1.1.2.1 Condyles form a relatively flat articular surface
2.1.1.2.1.1.1.2.1.1 Tibia
2.1.1.2.1.1.1.2.1.1.1 Tibial tuberosity provides attachments for the patellar ligament
2.1.1.2.1.1.1.2.1.1.2 Inferior surface of the tibial shaft & lateral surface of medial malleolus articulate with talus
2.1.1.2.1.1.1.2.1.1.2.1 Therefore covered with articular cartilage
2.1.1.2.1.1.1.2.1.1.2.2 As does the lateral malleolus of the fibula which extends 1cm more distally
2.1.1.2.1.1.1.2.1.1.3 Nutrient foramen on the tibia provides passage of the main artery supplying the proximal bone and marrow
2.1.1.2.1.1.1.2.1.2 Medial and lateral condyles separated by intercondylar eminence
2.1.1.2.1.1.1.2.1.2.1 Formed by two intercondylar tubercles
2.1.1.2.1.1.1.2.1.2.1.1 Tubercles fit into the intercondylar fossa between femoral condyles
2.1.1.2.1.1.1.2.1.2.1.2 Provide attachment for the menisci, ACL & PCL which hold the femur & tibia together
2.1.1.2.1.1.1.2.1.2.2 Anterior & posterior to which are rough intercondylar areas
2.1.1.2.1.2 Proximal attachments of MCL & LCL
2.1.1.2.1.3 Superior to medial epicondyle is adductor tubercle
2.1.2 Intertrochanteric line
2.1.2.1 Continues inferiorly and posteriorly as the spiral/pectineal line
2.1.2.2 Neck & shaft join (anteriorly)
2.1.2.2.1 Roughened ridge formed by attachment of iliofemoral ligament
2.2 Head
2.2.1 Covered with articular cartilage (Hyaline)
2.2.1.1 Except at a depression (fovea)
2.2.1.1.1 Attachment of ligament of head of femur
2.3 Neck
2.3.1 Advantageous for bipedal walking it imposes considerable strain of femoral neck
2.3.1.1 Fractures of neck can occur in elderly people
2.3.2 Angle of inclination between the head & shaft is greatest as a child & becomes more acute as an adult - average 126 degrees
2.3.2.1 Thigh adductors & rotators attach mainly to the apex of the angle
2.3.2.1.1 Greater trochanter
2.3.2.1.1.1 Intertrochanteric crest
2.3.2.1.1.1.1 Posteriorly connects the trochanters
2.3.2.1.1.1.2 Quadrate tubercle
2.3.2.1.1.1.2.1 Rounded projection on the crest
2.3.2.1.2 Therefore they are pulling on a lever that is directed more laterally providing increased leverage for adduction
2.3.2.2 Angle allows greater mobility at the hip as it places the head/neck more perpendicular to the acetabulum
2.3.2.3 Angle is less in females due to wider hips and more oblique femurs
2.4 Heaviest/Longest bone in the body
2.5 Transmits body weight from hip bone to the tibia
2.5.1 Oblique within the thighs so when standing, the knees are inferior to the trunk
2.5.1.1 Returns centre of gravity medially to the vertical lines of legs & feet
3 Hip
3.1 Acetabulum
3.1.1 Socket that articulates with the head of femur to form the hip joint
3.1.1.1 Made easier by smooth lunate surface of the acetabulum
3.1.2 Acetabular notch
3.1.2.1 Transverse acetabular ligament
3.1.3 Acetabular fossa
3.1.3.1 Depression in the acetabulum
3.2 Formed by fusion of 3 bones
3.2.1 Ilium
3.2.1.1 Superior part of acetabulum
3.2.1.2 Thick medial portions for weightbearing
3.2.1.3 Thin posterolateral portions (Ala) that provide broad surfaces for muscle attachment
3.2.1.3.1 iliac crest provides important site for aponeurotic attachment
3.2.1.3.1.1 Attachment for thin sheet like muscles of deep fascia
3.2.1.3.2 iliac fossa
3.2.1.3.2.1 Smooth depression for iliacus
3.2.1.3.3 Gluteal Fossa
3.2.1.3.3.1 Gluteal lines
3.2.1.3.3.1.1 Gluteus Maximus
3.2.1.3.3.1.1.1 Posterior to posterior line & iliac crest
3.2.1.3.3.1.2 Gluteus Medius
3.2.1.3.3.1.2.1 Between posterior & anterior lines
3.2.1.3.3.1.3 Gluteus Minimus
3.2.1.3.3.1.3.1 Between anterior & inferior lines
3.2.2 Pubis
3.2.2.1 Forms anterior part of acetabulum
3.2.2.2 pubic crest provides attachment for abdominals
3.2.2.3 Obturator Foramen
3.2.2.3.1 Formed by rami of pubis and ischium
3.2.2.3.1.1 Obturator Canal
3.2.2.3.1.1.1 allows passage of the obturator nerve and blood vessels
3.2.2.3.2 Minimise bony mass
3.2.2.3.3 Obturator Membrane
3.2.2.3.3.1 Closes the foramen around the canal
3.2.2.3.3.2 provides extensive surface area on both sides for muscle attachment
3.2.3 Ischium
3.2.3.1 Lesser sciatic notch serves as a trochlea (pulley)
3.2.3.2 ischial spine between the sciatic notches provides ligamentous attachment
3.2.3.3 Posterior-inferior part of acetabulum

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