The effects of day care on social development

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A Levels Psychology (Unit 1 - Attachments) Mind Map on The effects of day care on social development, created by danny-hudson97 on 04/07/2014.

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The effects of day care on social development
1 Effects on attachment
1.1 Negative
1.1.1 Belsky and Rovine (1988) Found support for Bowlby’s theory of permanent harm. If the child is in day care for more than four months in their first year they are significantly more likely to develop insecure attachments.
1.1.2 Sroufe (1990) Suggested therefore that children should not be placed in daycare until at least the age of one.
1.2 Positive
1.2.1 Clarke-Stewart et al (1994) In a study of 500 children found that children receiving up to 30 hours a week of day care were no more distressed than other children who had attended much lower intensity day care when separated from parents in the strange situation.
1.2.2 Roggman et al (1994) Compared infants who had attended day care in the first year with those who had remained at home and found no difference in attachment with mothers.
1.2.3 These studies suggest that day care has no ill effects on attachment or social development.
2 Effects on peer relations
2.1 Positive
2.1.1 Shea (1981) Videotaped children in a day nursery and compared the behaviours of those attending for different lengths of time He found that children who attended more regularly were more active, more sociable in that they went looking for people to talk to, and made more contact with others.
2.1.2 Clarke-Stewart et al (1994) Found that increased time in day care seemed to speed up social development, so children who had experienced more day care learned their social skills at an earlier age
2.2 Negative
2.2.1 There is no direct evidence suggesting that day care harms peer relations
2.2.2 Sroufe et al (2005) In their Minnesota longitudinal study did find support for Bowlby’s continuity hypothesis. This would suggest that children forming secure attachments with parents were more likely to form close relations with others later in life
3 Effects on aggression
3.1 More Agressive
3.1.1 Vandell and Corasaniti (1990) Found that eight year olds who had spent their early years in day care were rated as more ‘non-compliant’ by both their teachers and their parents
3.1.2 Haskins (1985) Found that children kept in larger groups were more likely to be aggressive
3.1.3 Belsky (1999) A number of studies have tended to support this finding that long periods of day care in the first five years can lead to raised levels of aggressive behaviour in later childhood
3.2 Less Agressive
3.2.1 Borge et al (2004) Questionnaire study of over 3000 Canadian children comparing day care children with children reared at home. Children kept at home appeared to be more aggressive
4 Comparing studies and drawing conclusions (AO2)
4.1 Age of commencing daycare and time spent in daycare also vary between studies with some looking at children who started in their first year and are spending 40 hours a week in daycare whilst others start later and spend perhaps only a couple of days a week away from parents.
4.2 The personality (temperament) of the child is hardly ever mentioned in the studies but is clearly going to affect how the child reacts to separation.
4.3 Family backgrounds for those attending and not attending daycare are likely to be very different.
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