Eukaryotic cell structure

Amy Le Grys
Mind Map by Amy Le Grys, updated more than 1 year ago
Amy Le Grys
Created by Amy Le Grys over 4 years ago
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A-Level Biology (Section 1) Mind Map on Eukaryotic cell structure, created by Amy Le Grys on 12/31/2016.

Resource summary

Eukaryotic cell structure
  1. Nucleus
    1. Nuclear envelope
      1. Double membrane surrounding the nucleus. Controls the entry and exit of materials.
      2. Nuclear Pores
        1. Allows passage of large molecules.
        2. Nucleoplasm
          1. Jelly-like material that makes up the bulk of the nucleus.
          2. Chromosomes
            1. Protein bound linear DNA
            2. Nucleolus
              1. Manufactures ribosomal RNA and assembles the ribosomes.
            3. Mitochondrion
              1. Double membrane
                1. Controls the exit and entry of materials.
                2. Cristae
                  1. Extensions of the inner membrane. Provide a large surface area for the attachment of enzymes during respiration.
                  2. Matrix
                    1. Contains proteins, lipids, ribosomes and DNA.
                  3. Chloroplasts
                    1. Chloroplast Envelope
                      1. Controls the exit and entry of materials.
                      2. Grana
                        1. Stacks of up to 100 disc like structures called Thylakoids. Where the first stage of photosynthesis takes place.
                        2. Thylakoids
                          1. Where chlorophyll is located.
                          2. Stroma
                            1. Fluid-filled matrix where the second stage of photosynthesis takes place.
                          3. Endoplasmic Reticulum
                            1. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
                              1. Has ribosomes on its outer surface.
                                1. Provides a large surface area for the synthesis of protiens.
                                  1. Provides a pathway for the transport of materials through the cell.
                                  2. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
                                    1. Has no ribosomes
                                      1. Synthesises, stores and transports lipids.
                                        1. Synthesises, stores and transports carbohydrates.
                                      2. Golgi Apparatus
                                        1. Cisternae
                                          1. Stack of membranes which make up flattened sacks.
                                          2. Vesicles
                                            1. Small round hollow structures. Transports modified proteins to the cell surface to be released outside.
                                            2. Modifies proteins by adding carbohydrates and labels them so they can be sorted.
                                              1. Produces secretorty enzymes.
                                                1. Forms lysosomes.
                                                2. Ribosomes
                                                  1. 80S
                                                    1. 25nm in diameter
                                                    2. Site of protein synthesis
                                                      1. One large one small sub unit.
                                                      2. Cell Wall
                                                        1. Consist of a number of polysaccharides
                                                          1. Middle Lamella
                                                            1. Thin layer which marks the boundry between cells and joins them together.
                                                            2. Provides mechanical strength to prevent the cell from bursting.
                                                              1. Gives strength to the plant as a whole.
                                                                1. Allows water to pass along it and contributes to the movement of water through the plant.
                                                                2. Vacuoles
                                                                  1. Tonoplast
                                                                    1. Single membrane surrounding the vacuole.
                                                                    2. Contains mineral salts, sugars, amino acids, wastes and pigments.
                                                                      1. Support plants by making them more turgid
                                                                        1. Sugars and amino acids act as a temporary food store
                                                                        2. Lysosomes
                                                                          1. Vesicles which contain the enzymes lysozymes
                                                                            1. Hydrolyse the cell wall of certain bacteria
                                                                              1. Hydrolyse material ingested by phagocytic cells
                                                                                1. Release enzymes outside of the cell to destroy material around the cell
                                                                                  1. Digest worn out organelles so the chemicals can be reused.
                                                                                    1. Break down cells after they have died.
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