Ionic and Covalent Bonds

Daniel Brener
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

IGCSE Edexcel Chemistry (Principles of Chemistry) Mind Map on Ionic and Covalent Bonds, created by Daniel Brener on 04/10/2014.

Daniel Brener
Created by Daniel Brener over 5 years ago
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Ionic and Covalent Bonds
1 Ionic Compounds
1.1 Formation of Ions


1.1.1 Oxidation is the LOSS of electrons
1.1.2 Reduction is GAIN of electrons
1.2 Ionic Crystals
1.2.1 Example: NaCl
1.2.2 There is a strong omnidirectional electrostatic force of attraction between the ions This prevents the ions from making much movement at low thermal energies
1.2.3 Note that each sodium ion surrounded by at least 6 chloride ions
1.3 Deducing ionic charge...
1.3.1 Group number ∴ Outer (valence) electrons ∴ How many e- gained/lost to 'fill outer shell'
1.3.2 Metals/non-metals metals lose e- to form +ve ions non-metals gain e- to form -ve ions
1.3.3 Atomic number ∴ number of e- ∴ valence e-
1.3.4 Electron configuration ∴ valence e-
1.4 Properties
1.4.1 Ionic compounds are GIANT LATTICES
1.4.2 High fixed points... ...because strong bonds take a lot of energy to break
1.4.3 Hard... ...because strong bonds keep the ions closely stuck together
1.4.4 Form Crystals (brittle)... ...because the ions form a regular array or lattice
1.4.5 Dissolve in water (usually)... ...because water is polar and break ions from the lattice (the ions are then surrounded by six water molecules
1.4.6 Conduct electricity when molten or aqueous... ...because ions are mobile (Not 'free to move') Solid ionic compounds do not conduct electricity as the ions are not mobile.
1.4.7 If in doubt: ..because of strong electrostatic forces between ions These strong electrostatic forces between oppositely charged ions is an ionic bond.
2 You need to know the charges of all the ions in the IGCSE specs.


2.1 See the note attached for the complete list
3 Covalent Bonds
3.1 A covalent bond is a pair of electrons shared between two atoms
3.1.1 It is a strong attraction between the bonding pair of electrons and the nuclei of the bonded atoms
3.2 Examples
3.2.1 Methane
3.3 Properties (using examples)
3.3.1 Hydrogen Hydrogen gas has a very low melting point (-259'C) Reason: The intermolecular forces between the molecules are weak Hydrogen gas does not conduct electricity Reason: There are no ions or free electrons present as the covalent bond is strong
3.4 Melting Point related to Structure
3.4.1 Simple Covalent Forces are overcome E.g. H2, O2, F2, CO2 Chlorine Gas When covalent substances melt or boil, it is the weak intermolecular forces which are overcome. The covalent bonds are NOT broken.
3.4.2 Giant Covalent/Molecular, Giant Metallic, Giant Ionic Giant Ionic E.g. NaCl, CuSO4, CaCl2, Giant Covalent E.g.Diamond
4 Remember: ALL covalent/ionic bonds are strong
5 Differences
5.1 Ionic
5.1.1 An ionic bond is an omnidirectional electrostatic force of attraction between oppositely charged ions
5.1.3 Also, some diagrams of ionic lattices show virticle and horizontal lines These are not ionic bonds
5.2 Covalent
5.2.1 A covalent bond is a pair of electrons shared between two atoms