Spatial memory and orientation

Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Spatial Memory and Orientation Mind Map on Spatial memory and orientation, created by arashi0712 on 05/07/2013.

Created by arashi0712 over 6 years ago
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Spatial memory and orientation
1 mechanims for orientation
1.1 path integration
1.1.1 beacons landmarks sun compass
2 Cognitive maps : ability to learn and understand spatial layouts and to mentally represent them
2.1 ie what is where in the environment
2.1.1 available in abscence of direct perception of objects/locations
2.2 Meerkats
2.2.1 Manser and Bell 2004 response to naturally occuring and recorded alarm calls know nearest bolthole 83% of time whether or not one was recently passed ignore new human made holes even if closer if the hole was covered still try to get in orientation based on memory detailed spatial knowledge of the location
2.3 elephants - water holes
2.3.1 older matriarch less bunching to calls
3 Adaptive specialization hypthesis
3.1 some animals regularly cache food, and the number of items and how long their stored for varies between species. This could be becasue the reliance on store food caches may be greater for those living in harsher environments where failure to recover food caches in winter may result in starvation. The increased visual demands of remembering locations are associated with an enlargement of the hippocampus an area of the brain involved in memory. According to the hypothesis, food caching animals should have larger hippocampal volumes realtive to brain and body size than non caching animals
3.2 Pravosudov and Clayton 2002
3.2.1 black capped chickadees alaskan and coloardo alaskan cached more food and needed fewer looks to find a cache possibly due to so many being cached, higher chance of finding one alaskans had a larger hippocampal volumes containing more neurons than colorado supports that the harsher the environment=more cached food=greater need to remember where=larger hippocampus

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