Sedimentary Structures

Lindsay Wennerström
Mind Map by Lindsay Wennerström, updated more than 1 year ago
Lindsay Wennerström
Created by Lindsay Wennerström about 4 years ago
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Description

List and description of sedimentary structures

Resource summary

Sedimentary Structures
  1. Laminations

    Annotations:

    • Layers less than 1 cm thick Form mostly as particles settled from suspension
    1. Beds

      Annotations:

      • Layers more than 1 cm thick  Form as particles settle from suspension and from moving sediment as sand in a stream channel
      1. Graded-bedding

        Annotations:

        • Individual layers with an upward decrease in grain size Deposition by turbidity currents or during waning stages of floods
        1. Cross-bedding

          Annotations:

          • Layers deposited at an angle to the surface in which they accumulated Deposition of a sloping surface at the downwind side of a sand dune 
          1. Ripple Marks
            1. Symmetrical

              Annotations:

              • Wave-formed ripple marks, generally with a sharp crest and broad troughs  Formed by oscillating currents
              1. Assymetrical

                Annotations:

                • Current ripple marks Result from deposition by water or air currents flowing in one direction 
              2. Mud Cracks

                Annotations:

                • Intersecting cracks in clay-rich soils Drying and shrinkage of mud along a lakeshore, a floodplain, or on tidal flats 
                1. Trace Fossils

                  Annotations:

                  • Indications of organic activity. Intense activity results in bioturbation involving disruption of sediment 
                  1. Tracks
                    1. Trails
                      1. Tubes
                        1. Burrows
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