Family & Households

Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

Mind Map on Family & Households, created by caryscallan on 04/17/2014.

Created by caryscallan over 5 years ago
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Family & Households
1 Functionalism
1.1 Parsons
1.1.1 2 basic and irreducible functions Primary socialisation Stabilisation of adult personalities
1.1.2 Structural differentiation Isolated nuclear family Geographical and social mobility Achieved status
1.2 Murdock
1.2.1 Sexual
1.2.2 Economic
1.2.3 Educational
1.2.4 Reproductive
2 Marxism
2.1 Engels
2.1.1 Economic function Inheritance of property
2.2 Zaretsky
2.2.1 Ideological funtion
2.3 Unit of consumption
2.4 Cultural capital
2.5 Housewife role
3 Feminism
3.1 Radical
3.1.1 Firestone Oppression due to biological and physical dominance
3.1.2 Family & marriage are key institutions Benefit from sex Dominate through the threat and use of sexual/domestic violence
3.2 Marxist
3.2.1 Oppressed by capitalism and patriarchy Benston Socialisation of workers for profit Unpaid female work Reserve army of cheap labour
3.2.2 Ansley Cushions workers Women are a safety valve
3.3 Liberal
3.3.1 Sexism is in mainstream culture
3.3.2 Jenny Somerville Move towards equality
3.3.3 Law Sex discrimination act
3.4 Difference
3.4.1 Ethnicities and classes have different experiences so they can't be compared
4 Demography
4.1 Births
4.1.1 Reasons for decline Changes in women's positions Decline in infant mortality Children are an economic liability Child centredness
4.1.2 Effects of fertility changes The family The dependency ratio Public services and policies
4.1.3 Future trends
4.2 Deaths
4.2.1 Reasons for decline Medical improvements Public health and environmental improvements Improved nutrition Other social changes Decline of dangerous manual jobs Greater illness knowledge Smaller families reduce transmission rate of infection Higher income = healthier lifestyle
4.2.2 The ageing population Declining fertility Declining infant mortality rate Increasing life expectancy
4.2.3 The effects of the ageing population The dependency ratio One person pensioner households Public services Social construct of ageing as a problem Policy implications
4.3 Migration
4.3.1 Immigration
4.3.2 Net migration
4.3.3 Emigration
4.3.4 Recent and future patterns
5 Childhood
5.1 Social contruct
5.1.1 Western ideas Jane Pilcher Seperateness
5.1.2 Cultural differences Ruth Benedict Differences between the West and elsewhere Responsibility Samantha Punch Rural bolivia age 5 they work Lowell Holmes Samoan village, child takes on what they can handle Obedience Raymond Firth Tikopia doing as your told by an adult is a concession Sexual behaviour Bronislaw Malinowski Trobriand "tolerance & amused interest"
5.1.3 Historical differences Philippe Ariès Middle ages it didn't exist "mini adults" Childhood emerged in 13th century Schools Clothing Childrearing books Edward Shorter Parental attitudes
5.1.4 Reasons for the change Law stopping labour Compulsory school Child protection and welfare legislation Children rights Declining family size & infant mortality Better medical knowledge of health and development Laws that apply to children
5.2 Has the position of childhood improved?
5.2.1 March of progress Lloyd de Mause History is dark Laws protect them Better healthcare Smaller families Higher living standards Child centredness
5.2.2 Conflict Inequalities among children Mayer Hillman Boys go out more after hours Jens Bonke Girls do more domestic labour Julia Brannen Asians are stricter with 15-16 year old daughters Ghazala Bhatti Izzat restricts girl behaviour Caroline Woodroffe Unskilled manual workers children 3x likely to suffer from hyperactivity 4x more likely to have conduct disorders Marilyn Howard Children in poor families are more likely to Die in infancy Suffer chronic illness Be short Fall behind in school Be on child protection register Inequalities between adults and children Neglect and abuse 2006 - 31,400 on child protection register ChildLine 20,000 annual calls Control over space Hugh Cunningham Travel alone distance for 8 year olds is 1/9 of what it was 25 years ago Shop signs "no schoolchildren" Close surveillance Cindi Katz Rural Sudanese children roam freely Control over time Routines Too old or too young for certain things Control over their bodies What they can and can't do with their appearance How they touch themselves Control over resource access Limited money earning opportunities Age patriarchy Diana Gittins Cathy Humphreys & Ravi Thiara 1/4 of 200 women left abuse for fear of their children Jennifer Hockey & Allison James Acting up or acting down
5.3 The future of childhood
5.3.1 The disappearance of childhood Neil Postman Fall of print culture and the rise of the television culture
5.3.2 Separate childhood culture Iona Opie Children create independent culture away from adults
5.3.3 Globalization of western childhood
5.3.4 Sue Palmer Toxic childhood Rapid cultural & technological changes damage all development Julia Margo & Mike Dixon Near/top of international league tables Obesity Self harm Drug/alcohol abuse Violence Early sex experiences Teenage pregnancies
6 Policy
6.1 Historically
6.1.1 Soviet union (1920s) made divorce and abortion easier. Gender equality. Communal nurseries Reversed it during industrialisation and war
6.1.2 China's 1 child policy
6.1.3 Nazi family policy
6.2 Functionalist
6.2.1 Ronald Fletcher Health,education, housing since the industrial revolution Welfare state to supports family functions
6.3 The new right
6.3.1 Welfare benefits offer perverse incentives
6.3.2 Dependency culture Married to the state
6.3.3 Advocate policies that support traditional family Taxes favouring married couples Child support agency
6.4 Labour
6.4.1 Supporting families 1998 New deal Off benefits into work Working family tax credit More wages for the move from benefits to low paid job Sure start Take all children out of poverty Every child matters 2005
6.5 Feminism
6.5.1 Hilary Land Assumes the ideal family is the cereal packet norm
6.5.2 Tax & benefits assume men are breadwinners so hard for women to claim social security benefits
6.5.3 Courts normally give women custody "natural carers"
6.5.4 Diana Leonard Maternity leave enforces patriarchy
6.5.5 Eileen Drew Gender regimes Familstic Assumption husband is breadwinner Women in Greece are heavily dependent on extended kin as there is little welfare or publicly funded childcare Individualistic Husband and wife treated equally In Sweden, both are responsible for breadwinning and domestic tasks, equal opportunities, state provision of childcare
6.6 Marxism
6.6.1 State and policies serve capitalism Low state pensions show old workers are maintained at the minimum Conscription in WW2 1450 nurseries for working Mums shut down after war
6.6.2 Working class improvements won through class struggle Pensions Free healthcare
6.7 Conservative
6.7.1 Thatcher in 1988 stopped cohabiting couples claiming more tax allowance than married couples
6.7.2 Back to basics campaign 1993 Child support agency 1993 Family law act 1996 1 year before divorce ( never implemented )
6.8 Coalition
6.8.1 Promote couples by creating tax benefits for marriage
6.8.2 Increase health visitors
6.8.3 Sure start intervene earlier for needy families
6.9 Jacques Donzelot
6.9.1 The policing of families Social workers, health visitors and doctors use their knowledge to control and change Poor families more likely to be watched "Problem familes" need "improvement" Rachel Condry Imposing compulsory parenting classes Young offenders, truants etc The "correct" way to bring children up
6.9.2 Used Michel Foucault's idea of surveillence
7 Marriage
7.1 Changing marriage patterns
7.1.1 Low marriage rates
7.1.2 More remarriages
7.1.3 People are marrying later
7.1.4 Couples are less likely to marry in church
7.2 Reasons for changing marriage patterns
7.2.1 Changing attitudes
7.2.2 Secularisation
7.2.3 Declining stigma of alternatives
7.2.4 Changes in women's positions
7.2.5 Fear of divorce
7.3 Reasons for the increase in cohabitation
7.3.1 Sex outside marriage is socially acceptable
7.3.2 Acceptance from the young
7.3.3 Women need less security
7.3.4 Secularisation
7.3.5 The relationship between cohabitation and marriage Trial marriage Permenent alterantive
7.4 Same sex relationships
7.4.1 Social acceptance
7.4.2 Social policy
7.5 One person households
7.5.1 In a divorce men are more likely to leave without children
7.5.2 More are single
7.5.3 Deliberate choice
7.5.4 Living apart together
8 Divorce
8.1 Reasons for the increase in divorce
8.1.1 Changes in the law Legal aid 1949 for those who couldn't afford it Divorce reform act 1969 (effect 1971) "irretrievable breakdown of marriage" Waiting a year for divorce 1984
8.1.2 Declining stigma and changing attitudes
8.1.3 Secularisation
8.1.4 Rising expectations of marriage
8.1.5 Changes in women's positions
8.2 The meaning of high divorce rates
8.2.1 Feminism
8.2.2 Postmodernists
8.2.3 Functionalists
8.2.4 Interactionists
9 Conjugal Roles
9.1 Domestic division of labour
9.1.1 Parsons Instrumental and expressive roles
9.1.2 Elizabeth Bott Joint and segregated roles
9.1.3 Young & Wilmott Symmetrical nuclear family Changes in women's positions Geographical mobility New technology Higher living standards
9.1.4 Ann Oakley Housewife role is dominant for married women
9.1.5 Mary Boulton Less than 20% of men have a major childcare role
9.1.6 Alan Warde & Kevin Hetherington Sex typing of domestics is strong
9.2 The impact of paid work
9.2.1 Jonathan Gershuny Wives who work do less domestic work
9.2.2 Hilary Silver & Juliet Schor Housework is commercialised Women working
9.2.3 Dual burden Elsa Ferri & Kate Smith Women still do as much work in and out of the house 4% of men are main carers
9.2.4 Triple shift Jean Duncombe & Dennis Marsden
9.2.5 Gender scripts with lesbian couples Gillian Dunne Equality
9.2.6 Oriel Sullivan Men do more domestic labour
9.3 Resources/decision making
9.3.1 Jan Pahl& Carolyn Vogler Pooling Allowance system
9.3.2 Stephen Edgell Very important decisions Husbands Important decisions Jointly Less important decisions Wives
9.4 Domestic violence
9.4.1 Richard Wilkinson Due to stress on family members caused by social inequality Inequality = less resources than others
9.4.2 Radical feminism Preserves the power of men over women
10 Diversity
10.1 The new right
10.1.1 Conservative and anti-feminist view Lone parent families Delinquency = threat to social stability Benefits offer perverse incentives Stay at home Mums Patrick Jenkins Inequality due to biology Marriage is necessary for children Harry Benson Family breakdown is lower in marriage (6%)
10.2 The neo-conventional family
10.2.1 Robert Chester Dual earner family where both spouses work Nuclear family is an aspiration Alternatives due to life cycle Statistics are misleading Most households have married couples Most marriages continue until death Cohabitation is normally temporary before marriage
10.3 The Rapoports
10.3.1 Organisational
10.3.2 Cultural
10.3.3 Social class
10.3.4 Life stage
10.3.5 Generational
10.4 Postmodernism
10.4.1 Life course analysis
10.4.2 Anthony Giddens Equal relationships Greater choice *contraception*
10.4.3 Ulrich Beck Risk society Negotiated family
10.4.4 Judith Stacey Divorce extended family
10.4.5 Jeffery Weeks Growing acceptance of diversity

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