1.1 Act of Supremacy - rejected papal supremacy, the heresy laws were
repealed, Henry VIII restoration legislation restored, Communion in both
kinds re-established, outlined Oath of Supremacy for clergymen, royal
visitations to the church and it described the Queen as Supreme
Governor not Supreme head - concession to Catholics.2000/8000
Marian bishops were deprived as they refused to tak
1.2 Act of Uniformity - Use of a single book of common prayer, allowed
variations in the Eucharistic belief and ommitted the 'Black Rubric' -
concessions to Catholics. Ornaments were to be those of before 1549 Act of
Uniformity - clergy saw these as popish. Non-attenders fined a shilling.
1.3 1559 Injunctions - set of instructions on Church
services and government of the Church. They said
the Eucharist should be administered at a
Commuinion table not an altar, removed all things
'superstitious, parishes must have an English bible
and wives of clergy had to be approved. Were all anti-catholic.
1.4 39 articles of religion - defined faith of the church - represented
protestant doctrines. the Church couldn't act contrary to the
scripture however it was unclear who defined the scripture
1.5 Elizabeth agreed to a more Protestant prayer book than she'd hoped.
Uniformity bill only passed by 3 votes after some Catholics were imprisoned.
1.6 Convocation of 1563 - equivalent to church parliament. Most bishops
expected further reform: a production of a doctrine, reforms to Book
of Common Prayer, better church laws and finances.
1.7 Jewel's 'Apology' - an attempt to provide a
statement of faith for the church
1.8 Vestarian Controversy - The 1563 convocation of Cantebury failed to secure further
reform. Clergy were meant to wear albs and copes - clergy refused to wear them. 1564
Parker summoned Sampson and Humphrey to discuss failure to wear dress. Parker
threatened to remove preaching licenses from miscreants. 1566 Paker's Advertisements -
clergy had to follow one uniformity of rites and manners, and one decent behavior. They
could wear a surplice instead of a cope. 37 London clergymen were deprived. Showed
differences between Protestants - those who wanted to remove popish elements and those
supporting the Queen.
1.9 All but one catholic bishops refused to conform to the Oath of Supremacy. 1586
Allen founded a college for training missionary priests. There was organised
catholic activity by deprived priests. Conservative nobles protected priests.There
were many recusants - in 1566 the Pope forbade cathlics from attending
services. The 1559 settlement preserved some Catholic practices. Catholic opinion
prominent in House of Lords - most clergy was Catholic, only 23% of senior
clergy endorsed royal supremacy. Elizabeth concerned about catholic powers of
Spain and France. 1569 rebellion led to harsher treatment of Catholics.
2.1 Presbyterians aimed to reorganise the church along the lines of the
Calvins Church in Geneva. Clergy were angered about the Vesterian
Controversy and having to subscribe to the 39 articles.
2.1.1 Field and Wilcox published the 1572 Admonitions to Parliament. The First Admonition
attacked superstitious practices such as kneeling in prayer and the Book of Common
Prayer.It called for the abolition of Church hierarchy - they were imprisoned for a
year. Second admonition by Cartwright was a description of a Presbyterian system
of government. Whitgift challenged these arguments and there was a pamphlet war
between Whitgift and Cartwright. Presbyterians argued a church with superstitious
elements is spiritually flawed. Whitgift argued they were trying to separate
themselves from the church.
2.2 Presbyterianism had support in high places - Leicster and Knollys
secured a preaching license for Field, Grindal (archbishop of
Cantebury) was lax about enforcing conformity. Grindal and Queen
disagreed over Prophesyings (gatherings where preachers
developed skills. Grindal said they spread the word of God, Queen
said they encourage radicalism. The movement became more
organised in the 80s - important classes met in Essex (usually 20
clergymen) to discuss concerns and give advice.
2.2.1 In 1584 turner introduced a bill for the Genevan Prayer Book and a
presbyterian system of government. Cope made the same proposal
in 87 and both were imprisoned.
18.104.22.168 Whitgifts Articles (new archbishop): Clergy had to acknowledge
royal supremacy, agree the prayer book was the word of God and
accept the 39 articles were the word of God. Clergy now had to
use the prayer book. Most clergy agreed to save their careers,
however, some such as Cartwright had their licinces removed.
22.214.171.124.1 Movement declined in the late 80s. Membership was small and
their reputation was suffered by the Marpelate Tracts.
2.3 Puritans regarded the church as incapable of removing all popish
practices and sought to set up an independent church. Brown and
Harrison developed the movement in reaction to attacks on Protestant
preachers. Puritanism also declined in the 80s - defenders at court died.
2.4 1568 - foundation of the English college at Douai.
It was training priests to send to England. Seminary
priests wanted to inspire Catholics to risk their lives
for their faith and improve the catholic community
so it could withstand persecution. Priests protected
by gentry and operated in gentry homes - priests
didn't gain support of lower classes. By 1580 100
arrived, in total 438 arrived and 98 put to death.
2.4.1 Jesuits - founded in 1534 to destroy heresy and restore Catholicism. They were
very intelligent and wanted to be completely separate from the church. Parsons
and Edmund first to get involved.Not a threat as from 1585 being a Catholic
priest was worthy of death, most were in south east where Catholicism was low -
half were in London, very few in the North. Humbler Catholics ignored.,
126.96.36.199 1585 fears increased due to war with Spain and increasing number or
priests arriving. Made it treasonable for any priest under the Popes
authority to enter England. From 1586-03 123 priests executed. In 1587
non- attenders not paying fines had 2/3 of their estate seized.
2.4.2 1571 - bringing into the realm or the
publication of papal bulls was treasonable.
2.4.3 1581 - Treasonable to withdraw your allegiance from the Queen or
Church. Mass punished by heavy fine and imprisonment,
non-attendance £20 month - in 1582 there were 1939 recusants.
188.8.131.52 1584 Bond of Association - anyone who took oath to the
Queen had to murder anyone attempting to take the throne.
2.5 Catholic plots: Ridolfi plot 1571 - Spanish troops
to land in Essex, march on London, overthrow
elixabeth, marry MQS to Norfolk to put Mary on
throne. Plot revealed and Philip II and Duke of
Alba didn't support. Norfolk executed
2.5.1 1583 Throckmorton plot - Spanish landing in Lancashire and sussex under
Duke of Guise. Walshingham found out, Throckmorton was executed,
Mendoza expelled, Arundel imprisoned. Led to Bond of Association.
184.108.40.206 1585 Parry Plot - Parry was employed by Burgley to spy on catholics. He
confessed to plotting to assassinate Elizabeth and put MQS on throne.
May have been converted to catholicism during his mission.
220.127.116.11.1 1586 Babington plot - he contacted Mendoza and 12 conspirators recruited to
murder Elizabeth. He wrote to Mary for approval, Walshingham found letter wand it
was sent to mary and she agreed. Mary would face trial by 24 privy Councillors and
nobles.Parliament petitioned to execute Mary. Elizabeth signed to agree in february
but changed her mine, Davison sent it regardless nad she was murdered in 1587.
Caused friction between Elizabeth and council.
3.1 Defeat of Armada reduced Catholic threat. Catholicism became
divided. Earl of Huntingdon and priest hunters convicted and
executed Catholics. From 1590-03, 53 priests executed and 35
catholic lay persons executed. In 1592, 800 recusant Catholics
were discovered but only 11 paid fines. Most Catholics did
3.2 Trouble broke out between priests imprisoned at wisbech. Weston (a
Jesuit) and 18 others requested separtaion from other prisoners.
Tensions between Jesuits ans decular priests increased in 1598 over
the Archpriest Controversy. Blackwell (the 1st archpriest) was appointed
to hold jurisdiction over secular priests. Priests Bishop and Charnock
appealed to Rome and a pamphlet war ensued. The pope reaffirmed
Blackwell's authority. Only a few Catholics held extreme positions.
3.3 Martin Marprelate tracts in 1588-9 - an attempt for Puritans to
reassert themselves. Tracts targeted bishops - accused Whitgift of
having an affair, Bishop of Peterborough accused of adultry.
Allegations against Cartwright denied. Throckmorton was assumed to
be the author. The tracts gained no support. The Church refuted
allegations, saying bishops were divinely ordained. There were few
divisions in the Church. The Book of Common Prayer formed the
basis of a new and accepted form of worship.