Attitudes to Food and Eating Behaviours

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Social-psychological theories of attitudes towards food and eating behaviours
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Attitudes to Food and Eating Behaviours
1 Social Learning Theory (SLT)
1.1 The impact that observing other people has on our own attitudes and behaviours
1.2 Parental Modelling
1.2.1 Parents control food bought and served in the house
1.3 Attitudes towards food acquired through famous people on the TV
2 SLT - AO2
2.1 Birch and Merlin
2.1.1 Exposed two year olds to a new food over six weeks
2.1.2 Found it took eight to ten exposures to get over initial dislike
2.2 Nicklaus et al
2.2.1 Collected data about food preferences of 2-3 year olds between 1982 and 1999
2.2.2 Follow up study in 2002 found overall positive correlation in food preferences of ages 2-3 and 4-7
2.2.2.1 Preferences for cheese and veggies remained stable, although an increase for veg from 2-3.
2.3 Macintyre
2.3.1 Found that media has a major impact on eating behaviours and attitudes
2.3.1.1 However, eating behaviour can be limited by personal cicrumstances
2.3.2 Thus, people appear to learn from the media about healthy eating, but this must be placed within context of their lives
3 Cultural influences - AO1
3.1 Ethnicity: research suggests that ED's are more likely in white women than black/Asian women
3.2 Social Class: Body dissatisfaction and ED's are likely in higher classes
4 Cultural differences - AO2
4.1 Claimed food functions differently in people from different cultures
4.1.1 Adults and college students from Belgium, France, America and Japan completed a survey
4.1.1.1 Questions such as beliefs about health and diet, consumption of healthy foods and satisfaction with healthiness
4.2 In all areas, except beliefs about diet, there were cultural differences
4.2.1 In all countries, females, showed a pattern of attitudes more like the Americans and less like the French
4.2.2 Conclusion: these differences may influence health and account for national differences in cardiovascular disease
4.3 Dornburch
4.3.1 Surveyed 7000 American teenagers
4.3.1.1 Found higher class females had a greater desire to be thin than their lower-class counterparts
5 Mood - AO1
5.1 Serotonin hypothesis
5.1.1 Chocolate contains tryptophan, this causes a rise in serotonin levels
5.1.2 Depressed people have been known to have high carb diets
5.1.2.1 However, only pure carbs will enter the brain
5.2 Opiate
5.2.1 An example of an opiate is endorphins, these produce euphoria
5.2.1.1 This is then controlled by a reward system operated by food.
5.2.1.2 Sweet foods increase endorphins
6 Mood - AO2
6.1 Garg and Wegner
6.1.1 Observed food choices of 38 participants watching either an upbeat funny film, or a sad depressing one
6.1.2 Participants were offered buttered popcorn and seedless grapes
6.1.3 Those watching the sad film consumed 36% more popcorn than the upbeat film, but they consumed much more grapes.
6.1.3.1 The researchers claimed that people who feel sad want to 'jolt' themselves out of the blues, causing them to go to a snack that causes them a sudden rush of euphoria
6.1.4 However, when participants were presented with nutritional information, consumption of unhealthy foods dropped
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