Janice’s Painful Knee

Fatma Shwaylia
Mind Map by Fatma Shwaylia, updated more than 1 year ago
Fatma Shwaylia
Created by Fatma Shwaylia over 3 years ago
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Description

Mind Map on Janice’s Painful Knee, created by Fatma Shwaylia on 04/10/2017.

Resource summary

Janice’s Painful Knee
1 Anatomy of the knee
1.1 Articulations
1.2 Ligaments
1.3 Bursae
1.3.1 Medial view
1.3.2 Anterior view
1.4 Arteries
1.4.1 Genicular Anastamosis
1.5 Muscles of the leg
1.5.1 Anterior
1.5.2 Posterior
1.5.3 Lateral
1.6 Veins
2 Knee pain
2.1 causes
2.1.1 Injuries
2.1.1.1 ACL injury
2.1.1.2 Fractures
2.1.1.3 Torn meniscus
2.1.1.4 Knee bursitis
2.1.1.5 Patellar tendinitis
2.1.2 Mechanical Pain
2.1.2.1 Loose body
2.1.2.2 Iliotibial band syndrome
2.1.2.3 Dislocated kneecap
2.1.2.4 Hip or foot pain
2.1.3 Arthritis
2.1.3.1 Osteoarthritis
2.1.3.1.1 chronic disease characterized by progressive degeneration, destruction, and loss of articular cartilage.
2.1.3.1.1.1 Primary
2.1.3.1.1.1.1 in the elderly without an obvious cause
2.1.3.1.1.1.1.1
2.1.3.1.1.2 Secondary
2.1.3.1.1.2.1 Affects joints damaged by another disease
2.1.3.1.1.2.1.1 Pathology
2.1.3.1.1.2.1.1.1 Progression
2.1.3.1.1.2.1.1.1.1 Prognosis
2.1.3.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1 Unpredictable
2.1.3.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.2 Depends on joint affected and progression
2.1.3.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.3 40% of old OA patients have x-ray evidence revealing significant OA in their hips and knees
2.1.3.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.4 less than 5% will undergo joint replacement surgery.
2.1.3.1.2 Risk Factors
2.1.3.1.2.1 Local Risk Factors
2.1.3.1.2.1.1 Obesity
2.1.3.1.2.1.2 Injury/Surgery
2.1.3.1.2.1.3 Occupation
2.1.3.1.2.1.4 Physical Activity
2.1.3.1.2.1.5 Mechanical factors
2.1.3.1.2.1.6 Alignment
2.1.3.1.2.1.7 Laxity
2.1.3.1.2.2 Systemic Risk Factors
2.1.3.1.2.2.1 Age
2.1.3.1.2.2.2 Gender & Hormones
2.1.3.1.2.2.3 Race/Ethnicity
2.1.3.1.2.2.4 Genetics
2.1.3.1.2.2.5 Congenital Conditions
2.1.3.1.2.2.6 Diet
2.1.3.1.3 common clinical features
2.1.3.1.3.1 Pain, dull and deep seated
2.1.3.1.3.2 Stiffness of joints,
2.1.3.1.3.3 Crepitus, a sound elicited by the opposing joint surfaces
2.1.3.1.3.4 Swelling and effusion
2.1.3.1.3.5 Heberden nodes involving the finger joints
2.1.3.1.4 Complications
2.1.3.1.4.1 Chondrolysis
2.1.3.1.4.2 Osteonecrosis
2.1.3.1.4.3 Stress fractures
2.1.3.1.4.4 Loss of ability
2.1.3.1.4.5 Hemorrhage within the joint
2.1.3.1.4.6 Infection
2.1.3.1.4.7 Compression of vertebral artery
2.1.3.1.4.8 Osteophyte pressing on the esophagus
2.1.3.1.4.9 Atrophy
2.1.3.1.4.10 Baker’s Cyst (popliteal cysts)
2.1.3.1.5 Treatment and management
2.1.3.1.5.1 Non- pharmacological treatment
2.1.3.1.5.1.1 Life style
2.1.3.1.5.1.2 Exercise
2.1.3.1.5.1.3 Aids and appliances
2.1.3.1.5.1.4 Patient education
2.1.3.1.5.1.5 Heat and cold
2.1.3.1.5.1.6 Weight loss
2.1.3.1.5.2 pharmacological treatment
2.1.3.1.5.2.1 Glucosamine is an amino sugar and a prominent precursor in the biochemical synthesis of glycosylated proteins and lipids
2.1.3.1.5.2.1.1 It is in the fluid that is around joints.
2.1.3.1.5.2.1.1.1 Can be given to:
2.1.3.1.5.2.1.1.1.1 Relief the pain within 4-8 weeks NSAIDS “ibuprofen” within
2.1.3.1.5.2.1.1.1.2 Improve joint function
2.1.3.1.5.2.1.1.1.3 Slow breakdown of joints
2.1.3.1.5.3 Surgery
2.1.3.1.5.3.1 knee Joint replacement
2.1.3.1.5.3.1.1 surgery to replace a knee joint with a man-made joint. The artificial joint is called a prosthesis.
2.1.3.1.5.3.1.1.1 Recommended in
2.1.3.1.5.3.1.1.1.1 Pain
2.1.3.1.5.3.1.1.1.1.1 from sleeping or doing normal activities.
2.1.3.1.5.3.1.1.1.2 cannot walk and take care of yourself.
2.1.3.1.5.3.1.1.1.3 knee pain has not improved with other treatment
2.1.3.1.5.3.1.1.1.4 understand what surgery and recovery will be like.
2.1.3.1.5.4 Unloading in certain joints (eg, knee, hip)
2.1.3.2 Rheumatoid arthritis
2.1.3.3 Gout
2.1.3.4 pseudogout
2.1.3.5 Septic arthritis
2.2 Signs and symptoms
2.2.1 Redness and warmth to the warmth
2.2.2 Swelling and stiffness
2.2.3 Weakness or instability
2.2.4 Popping or crunching noises
2.2.5 inability to fully straighten the knee
3 Physical Examination of the knee Joint
3.1 Introduction
3.1.1 (greeting-explaining-privacy-confidentiality-consent).
3.1.2 HEPA
3.1.2.1 H: hand washing
3.1.2.2 E: exposure.
3.1.2.3 P:position(patient) and gait
3.1.2.4 A: appearance.
3.2 Inspection
3.2.1 S: symmetry
3.2.2 S:skin (discoloration-scars-abnormal creases)
3.2.3 Shape
3.2.3.1 joint: swelling
3.2.3.2 Bone: deformity
3.2.3.3 .Muscle: wasting.
3.2.4 P: position(of the joint).
3.2.4.1
3.2.4.2
3.3 Palpation
3.3.1 Skin(temperature)
3.3.2 Muscle(wasting-spasms)
3.3.3 Blood vessels(pulse).
3.3.4 Bone(bony landmarks)
3.3.5 Joint(crepitus-space-swelling).
3.4 Range of Movements
3.4.1 Passive and active
3.4.1.1 Flexion (135 degrees or above).
3.4.1.2 Extension(0 degree).
3.5 Special tests
3.5.1 Anterior Drawer test
3.5.2 Posterior Drawer Test
3.5.3 Patellar Apprehension Test
3.5.4 Collateral ligaments stress test
3.5.5 Apley's grinding and distraction test
3.5.5.1
4 Radiology
4.1
4.1.1 osteoarthritis
4.2
4.2.1 Rheumatoid Arthritis
4.3
4.3.1 gout
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