Janice’s Painful Knee

Fatma Shwaylia
Mind Map by Fatma Shwaylia, updated more than 1 year ago
Fatma Shwaylia
Created by Fatma Shwaylia over 3 years ago


Mind Map on Janice’s Painful Knee, created by Fatma Shwaylia on 04/10/2017.

Resource summary

Janice’s Painful Knee
1 Anatomy of the knee
1.1 Articulations
1.2 Ligaments
1.3 Bursae
1.3.1 Medial view
1.3.2 Anterior view
1.4 Arteries
1.4.1 Genicular Anastamosis
1.5 Muscles of the leg
1.5.1 Anterior
1.5.2 Posterior
1.5.3 Lateral
1.6 Veins
2 Knee pain
2.1 causes
2.1.1 Injuries ACL injury Fractures Torn meniscus Knee bursitis Patellar tendinitis
2.1.2 Mechanical Pain Loose body Iliotibial band syndrome Dislocated kneecap Hip or foot pain
2.1.3 Arthritis Osteoarthritis chronic disease characterized by progressive degeneration, destruction, and loss of articular cartilage. Primary in the elderly without an obvious cause Secondary Affects joints damaged by another disease Pathology Progression Prognosis Unpredictable Depends on joint affected and progression 40% of old OA patients have x-ray evidence revealing significant OA in their hips and knees less than 5% will undergo joint replacement surgery. Risk Factors Local Risk Factors Obesity Injury/Surgery Occupation Physical Activity Mechanical factors Alignment Laxity Systemic Risk Factors Age Gender & Hormones Race/Ethnicity Genetics Congenital Conditions Diet common clinical features Pain, dull and deep seated Stiffness of joints, Crepitus, a sound elicited by the opposing joint surfaces Swelling and effusion Heberden nodes involving the finger joints Complications Chondrolysis Osteonecrosis Stress fractures Loss of ability Hemorrhage within the joint Infection Compression of vertebral artery Osteophyte pressing on the esophagus Atrophy Baker’s Cyst (popliteal cysts) Treatment and management Non- pharmacological treatment Life style Exercise Aids and appliances Patient education Heat and cold Weight loss pharmacological treatment Glucosamine is an amino sugar and a prominent precursor in the biochemical synthesis of glycosylated proteins and lipids It is in the fluid that is around joints. Can be given to: Relief the pain within 4-8 weeks NSAIDS “ibuprofen” within Improve joint function Slow breakdown of joints Surgery knee Joint replacement surgery to replace a knee joint with a man-made joint. The artificial joint is called a prosthesis. Recommended in Pain from sleeping or doing normal activities. cannot walk and take care of yourself. knee pain has not improved with other treatment understand what surgery and recovery will be like. Unloading in certain joints (eg, knee, hip) Rheumatoid arthritis Gout pseudogout Septic arthritis
2.2 Signs and symptoms
2.2.1 Redness and warmth to the warmth
2.2.2 Swelling and stiffness
2.2.3 Weakness or instability
2.2.4 Popping or crunching noises
2.2.5 inability to fully straighten the knee
3 Physical Examination of the knee Joint
3.1 Introduction
3.1.1 (greeting-explaining-privacy-confidentiality-consent).
3.1.2 HEPA H: hand washing E: exposure. P:position(patient) and gait A: appearance.
3.2 Inspection
3.2.1 S: symmetry
3.2.2 S:skin (discoloration-scars-abnormal creases)
3.2.3 Shape joint: swelling Bone: deformity .Muscle: wasting.
3.2.4 P: position(of the joint).
3.3 Palpation
3.3.1 Skin(temperature)
3.3.2 Muscle(wasting-spasms)
3.3.3 Blood vessels(pulse).
3.3.4 Bone(bony landmarks)
3.3.5 Joint(crepitus-space-swelling).
3.4 Range of Movements
3.4.1 Passive and active Flexion (135 degrees or above). Extension(0 degree).
3.5 Special tests
3.5.1 Anterior Drawer test
3.5.2 Posterior Drawer Test
3.5.3 Patellar Apprehension Test
3.5.4 Collateral ligaments stress test
3.5.5 Apley's grinding and distraction test
4 Radiology
4.1.1 osteoarthritis
4.2.1 Rheumatoid Arthritis
4.3.1 gout
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