English Language

Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

Mind Map on English Language, created by krissiebelle001 on 05/10/2014.

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Created by krissiebelle001 over 5 years ago
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1 Concepts and Contexts
1.1 Context= what, where, who, when, why?
1.2 Concepts:
1.2.1 technology
1.2.2 dialect
1.2.3 sociolect
1.2.4 Idiolect
1.2.5 power
1.2.6 gender
1.2.7 age
1.2.8 occupation
1.2.9 standard/non- standard
2 Language Frameworks
2.1 Grammar
2.1.1 system of rules on how words and sentences are constructed
2.2 Register and Mode
2.2.1 the level of formality in a discourse
2.3 Pragmatics
2.3.1 sometimes called language in use looks at social conventions, context, personality and relationships influence on the choices people make about language
2.4 Phonology
2.4.1 the study of sounds in english
2.4.2 how their pronounced and how their combined to make words
2.5 Semantics
2.5.1 study of meaning created through words and phrases
2.6 Subject
2.6.1 what the discourse is about, lexical choices
3 Varieties of English
3.1 Accent and Dialect
3.1.1 English words can be pronounced in different ways the differnet patterns of pronounciation are accents can be affected by a speakers regional or social background accents refer to how you say words, not the words themselves
3.1.2 dialect= variations in language, has its own distinctive features refers to specific words not just how you say them to describe language from a specific geographical region
3.2 Slang
3.2.1 informal vocab and non-standard words
3.2.2 different purposes
3.2.3 often inventive and creative two main purposes are to be rebellious or entertaining
3.3 Standard English and RP (Recieved Pronounciation)
3.4 Sociolect and Idiolect
3.4.1 sociolect=language of social groups
3.4.2 idiolect= the word choices people make how they form sentences unique to an individual like a fingerprint a unique combination of influences
4 Language in Social Contexts
4.1 Language and the Media
4.1.1 media can be biased newspaper reports often show bias through the writers word choice
4.1.2 can show prejudice towards social groups children's media lang = distinctive this is through: lexis, grammar and punctuation Lexis= small, repeated, simple, informal grammar= address audience (third person) punctuation= simple punctuation, upbeat ... uses exclamation marks ... includes and engages audience
4.1.3 Taboloid newspapers have clear viewpoints, use straightforward language
4.1.4 Broadsheets aimed at professional, mainly middle class readers
4.2 Language and Power
4.2.1 Political language, legal language, education, business
4.2.2 political: repetition, first person, rhetorical questions legal: has its own lexis called jargon, syntax=complex education: teachers use imperatives, students use indirect questions business: power structure similar to education in schools hierarchical structure- subordinate, superior, team leader, chief executive
4.3 Language and Technology
4.3.1 mobile phones= massive impact on langauge ( e.g- shorthand) acronyms (LOL), numbers for words (2- to) imcomplete clauses (home safe. speak soon) phonetic spelling (coz- because)
4.3.2 the internet has affected language too dependant on context- one business letter to another may be formal and use standard english whereas friends on a chatroom may use text speech and informal english
4.3.3 new technology has created new words and meanings (e.g- affixation, compounding, clipping, blending and conversion) compounding- combining separate words blending- parts of two words combined conversion- a existing word changes its grammatical function clipping- shortened word becomes its own word
4.4 Language and Occupational groups
4.4.1 different occupations have their own sociolect occupational language varies depending on form and function informative discourse persuasive discourse instructional discourse transactional discourse
4.5 Language and Gender
4.6 Adverts
4.6.1 designed to persuade
4.6.2 when reviewing adverts look at: subject matter, purpose, form, target audience and the hook subject matter= adverts will focus on a product, service or cause purpose= designed to persuade to buy a product or service, support a charity or join a campaign form= comes in various different forms (e.g- newspapers and magazines, leaflets) target audience= could be broad (e.g- food shoppers, drivers) or specific (boys who like skateboarding) hook= the device advertisers use to get the audience's attention- it could be visual, verbal or musical
5 Spoken Language
5.1 Spoken Language
5.1.1 two main purposes: 1. to convey meaning (explain something, give orders, instructions) 2. to demonstrate attitudes and values
5.1.2 content depends on context functions in different ways: Interactional, Referential, Expressive, Transactional, Phatic Interactional= to develop relationships between speakers, it is informal speech has a social function Referential= provides information, used to refer to objects, the speaker assumes knowledge from the listener Expressive= highlights emotions and attitudes Transactional= getting information or making a deal, driven by needs and wants Phatic= used for social purposes, innitiating a conversation, small talk
5.2 Speech Features
5.2.1 can be prepared or spontaneous prepared= done in advance, specific demographic, formal, preformed/delivered, maintain interest of listeners spontaneous = on the spot, informal, shared with those known by speaker, in response to another speaker
5.3 Conversation and Turn-taking
5.3.1 openings, reponses, adjacency pairs, signalling closure= happen in all conversations
5.3.2 some features depend on individual speakers switching and turn taking, tag questions, tppic shifts, feedback
6 Written Language
6.1 Ideology and Representation
6.1.1 values and morals evident in texts
6.1.2 texts can show prejudice and bias
6.1.3 a writer may also show their attitudes and explicictly- e.g journalists
6.1.4 may draw on personal experience
6.1.5 Influenced by environment, evident in their characters, narrator the themes and issues
6.1.6 language choice can influence reader- texts are often manipulated to create certain emotions or reactions in the reader
6.2 Purpose
6.2.1 what the writer is trying to achieve persuade,instruct,inform,entertain persuade= first person, emotive adjectives, evidence instruct= chonological/ numbered sections, bullets, headings,imperitives, second person inform= clear structure, simple language, specialist terms, third person, serious tone-opinion/comments entertain= sophisticated language, extensive vocab, figurative lang,complex structure, varied sentence types
6.3 Audience
6.3.1 listener or reader how they're addressed- formal/ informal, direct/indirect known audience= the writer uses personal pronouns, emotive language, prime demographic they target writing at unknown=doesn't acknowledge reader directly writes in 3rd person, no personal emotions evident, fairly formal text
6.3.2 To figure out the intended audience of a text look at the style, content, lexis, tone and formality style ( formal= older audience, informal= younger) content ( general topic= broad audience, specific= smaller audience) lexis ( complex, specialist, technical) tone ( serious tone= mature, interested audience) formality ( reports, articles= formal, emails=informal and friendly, know the person or group
6.4 Genre
6.4.1 the kind of language it is e.g- instruction booklet, advert, casual conversation between friends written text formats letters postcards text messages recepies Spoken text formats answer phone message interview lesson radio show
6.5 Literary Texts
6.5.1 part of the entertainment field aim to: entertain or amuse affect readers emotions describe the atmosphere examine the personality of a character influence how the reader looks at the world
6.5.2 3 main types of literary texts: prose- novels, stories, bio's poetry- vary in content, structure, style and intention plays- consist of dialogue between characters or monologue talking directly to the audience

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