Nutrition in Humans: Part 1

Daniel Brener
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

IGCSE Edexcel Biology (Structures and functions in living organisms) Mind Map on Nutrition in Humans: Part 1, created by Daniel Brener on 05/13/2013.

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Daniel Brener
Created by Daniel Brener over 6 years ago
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Nutrition in Humans: Part 1
1 Diet
1.1 Starch
1.1.1 source:bread, potatoes and rice
1.1.2 made up of glucose
1.1.3 used for energy storage in plants, therefore it provides an energy source for humans
1.2 Glucose
1.2.1 an immediate source of energy for cells
1.2.2 source: fruit and other sweet foods
1.3 Protein
1.3.1 made up of amino acids
1.3.2 used for growth, repair, muscles and enzymes
1.3.3 source: meat
1.4 Lipid
1.4.1 made up of fatty acids attached to glycerol
1.4.2 insulation, energy source, creating cell membrane
1.4.3 source: dairy products, and vegetables
1.5 Fibre
1.5.1 helps food move through the gut and prevents gut disease
1.5.2 made up of a special type of glucose
1.5.3 source: whole meal foods
1.6 Water
1.6.1 needed to ensure bodily fluids are of right concentration
1.6.2 source:most foods and drinks
1.7 Vitamins and Minerals
1.7.1 Iron
1.7.1.1 required to make haemoglobin
1.7.1.2 anemia
1.7.2 Calcium
1.7.2.1 help make bones
1.7.2.2 rickets
1.7.3 Vitamin D
1.7.3.1 helps bones take up calcium
1.7.3.2 rickets
1.7.4 Vitamin C
1.7.4.1 helps surface cells stay together
1.7.4.2 deficiency: scurvy
1.7.5 Vitamin A
1.7.5.1 needed for light sensitive chemicals in the eye
1.7.5.2 night blindness
2 Processes
2.1 ingestion
2.1.1 taking food in
2.2 digestion
2.2.1 the breakdown of large insoluble molecules into small and soluble ones.
2.3 absorption
2.3.1 the moving of the small soluble molecules into the blood
2.4 assimilation
2.4.1 the digested molecules are passed into cells
2.5 egestion
2.5.1 undigested substances removed
3 Peristalsis
3.1 circular muscles contract and relax along in alimentary canal
3.1.1 push boluses through the gut
4 Digestive Enzymes
4.1 amylase
4.1.1 breaks down starch into maltose
4.2 protease
4.2.1 breaks down protein into amino acids
4.3 lipase
4.3.1 breaks down lipids into fatty acids and glycerol
4.4 maltase
4.4.1 breaks maltose down into glucose
4.5 bile
4.5.1 produced in the liver
4.5.2 stored in the gall bladder
4.5.2.1 released bile into the duodenum
4.5.3 neutralises the HCl acid from the stomach
4.5.4 emulsifies the lipids
4.5.4.1 breaking them into small droplets
4.5.4.1.1 increasing the S.A.
4.5.4.1.1.1 increasing the metabolic rate
4.5.4.1.1.1.1 increasing rate of digestion
5 Villus
5.1 millions of villi
5.1.1 very high S.A.
5.2 each cell has microvilli
5.2.1 increasing the S.A.
6 Describe an experiment to investigate the energy content in a food sample

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