1.1.1 Baddeley's laser pen experiment (1973) supports
the existence/role of a central executive. Asked pts
to follow a laser dot (occupy VSS) and count the
angles of a letter. Can't use multi stores showing
the role of a CE to choose between them.
1.1.2 Bunge's study using MRI scans whilst pts performed
single and dual tasks in their working mem. Found that
when doing a dual task there was more brain activity than
for the single task which suggests that there is a CE as
more than one store of the brain is being selected for use.
1.1.3 Support from K.F. (see clearly but had poor speech.
This suggests the WMM as he has damaged one
part of the multi-store STM, damaged the
phonological loop but not visuo-spatial sketchpad.
1.1.4 still oversimplified - EVR (tumor
removed) poor decision making
but good reasoning skills.
1.1.5 Baddeley & Hitch- dual task "B is followed by A,
true/false" while repeating 482917 - no problem
as both use STM (reasoning/rehearsal).
184.108.40.206 SM- encoded iconic/echoic, stored for fractions of a
second, 12 item capacity (according to Sperling)
220.127.116.11 STM- encoded acoustically, stored for 20-30
seconds (according Peterson& P trigrams), capacity
7+-2 (according Miller), 5-9 (according Jacobs).
18.104.22.168 LTM endoded semantically,
duration and capacity = unlimited
1.2.2 H.M. op to remove hippocampus- reduce epileptic
seizures lost ability to form LTM(but could old LTM&STM)
1.2.3 Clive Wearing damage
to his LTM after illness,
1.2.4 Glanzer & Kunitz primary-recency-effect-read word list and
recall, words could: pass to LTM, decay from STM, still be in SM.
1.2.6 Oversimplified-KF showed STM, CW
showed LTM as multi store structures
2 EYEWITNESS TESTIMONY "a legal term that
refers to the evidence given in court or in
a police investigation by a person who
has witnessed a crime or accident"
2.1 Effect of age on EWT
2.1.1 Anastasi & Rhodes
22.214.171.124 The aim of the
experiment was to study
the effect of age on EWT.
126.96.36.199.1 3 groups of pts from 3 age groups,
young adults (18-25), middle age adults,
and older adults (50+) were all shown
24 photographs of different people from
all age groups and were asked to rate
them on attractiveness. This was a
decoy question as the groups were later
shown 48 photographs and asked to
recall what photographs were the
original 24 that they were shown
previously in the experiment.
188.8.131.52.1.1 The older group had the most difficulty recognising faces, but it was concluded that pts
were much better at recalling people from their own age group. Anastasi & Rhodes
claimed that it was because we are more used to being around those in our own age
group and so are more used to the situation. They called this the 'differential experience
hypothesis' or OWN AGE BIAS.
2.1.2 Dodson & Krueger
184.108.40.206 2 groups of pts from separae age groups: young adults and older adults were
shown a video of a mock crime, they were then given a questionnaire on the
clip that contained leading questions. Older adults were more likely to produce
false memories as their memories are more easily distorted. This implies that
older adults do not have as accurate of an EWT as younger adults.
2.1.3 Parker & Carranza
220.127.116.11 Two groups of pts from separate age groups:
adolescents(13-18) and young children(5-10)
were shown a mock crime video, then shown a
line up of people without the actual suspect there.
18.104.22.168.1 The younger children were more likely to guess and pick any
culprit whereas the adolescents were able to say that they did
not recognise any of the suspects in the line-up. This implies that
younger children are more vulnerable to social pressure and so
more likely to guess rather than not have an answer.
22.214.171.124.1.1 Children: are more suggestible, have limited language
skills, and are more likely to cave into social pressure.
2.2 Effect of leading
questions on EWT
2.2.1 LOFTUS & PALMER (1974) supported the 'reconstructive
memory hypothesis' arguing that information gathered at
time of event is modified by data afterwards. Over time
information is integrated to the degree that it's impossible
to separate them - in effect we only have one memory.
126.96.36.199 Showed students a film of an accident & asked them to fill out a
questionnaire. One question was 'How fast were the cars going when
they___' *smashed/collided/bumped. Students that were asked the
question with an aggressive verb estimated higher speeds & were
more likely to be affected by a leading glass question 1 week later.
2.2.2 Yuille & Cutshall (1986) interviewed 13
eyewitnesses 4 months after an armed
robbery, compared current EWT to
police reports. Leading Q's had no
effect, concluded that real memory CAN
2.3 Effect of anxiety on EWT
2.3.1 DEFFENBACHER et al (2004) conducted a meta
analysis of real life bank robberies and concluded that
witnesses were able to recall the face of the robber
54% of the time in low stress situations, the
witnesses who were in high stress situations were
able to accurately recall the face of the robber just 42%
of the time (high stress).
188.8.131.52 Deffenbacher concluded that the
accuracy of EWT will be much
lower in high stress situations.
2.3.2 LOFTUS seated pts outside a laboratory when 2
scientists begin yelling inside. In one condition a
scientist burst out holding a knife & covered in blood,
in the 2nd holding a pen covered in ink, 43% recalled
from pen whereas only 33% recalled from knife.
2.3.3 CHRISTIANSON & HUBINETTE (1993) witnesses to bank
robberies who had been threatened had more accurate recall
than those not involved.
2.3.4 Weapon focus effect states that a person will
focus their attention on a weapon(as it is the real
cause of anxiety) whilst witnessing a crime and
therefore will not see periphery information.
2.3.5 Yerkes Dodson's law
2.4 Witness ENCODES details of the event into
LTM(which could be partial/distorted due to
violence etc). Witness RETAINS info, memories
may be lost or modified during retention and most
are lost in the first few minutes.Witness
RETRIEVES the memory from the LTM, this mem is
a reconstruction of the original incident and this can
affect its accuracy. The nature of questioning can
affect the recall, especially if Q's are not open.
3 Memory Strategies
3.2 Bower et al(1969) gave pts 112
words to learn -they were able to
recall 2/3 times more if they were
organised than if they were
3.3 dual coding
image and word
3.4 Organisation -making the most of our memory,
to be able to order the information, you have to
understand what it means (semantically)
3.5 Elaborative rehearsal
-can process info a a
much deeper level
4 Cognitive interview (PROM)
4.1 (P)erspective, asking the
winess to try and picture
the event from another
person's perspective, how
would it have appeared to
4.2 (R)eport everything, interviewer encourages
reporting every detail even if it seems irrelevant.
4.3 (O)rder, interviewee asked to report the events in different
orders e.g. reversing the order that the events occurred.