Cognitive

mrsdaydream
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

A-Levels Psychology AS (Cognitive) Mind Map on Cognitive, created by mrsdaydream on 05/14/2013.

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mrsdaydream
Created by mrsdaydream over 6 years ago
Age as a factor affecting eye witness testimony
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Cognitive
1 Models Of Memory
1.1 Working Memory Model

Attachments:

1.1.1 Baddeley's laser pen experiment (1973) supports the existence/role of a central executive. Asked pts to follow a laser dot (occupy VSS) and count the angles of a letter. Can't use multi stores showing the role of a CE to choose between them.
1.1.2 Bunge's study using MRI scans whilst pts performed single and dual tasks in their working mem. Found that when doing a dual task there was more brain activity than for the single task which suggests that there is a CE as more than one store of the brain is being selected for use.
1.1.3 Support from K.F. (see clearly but had poor speech. This suggests the WMM as he has damaged one part of the multi-store STM, damaged the phonological loop but not visuo-spatial sketchpad.
1.1.4 still oversimplified - EVR (tumor removed) poor decision making but good reasoning skills.
1.1.5 Baddeley & Hitch- dual task "B is followed by A, true/false" while repeating 482917 - no problem as both use STM (reasoning/rehearsal).
1.2 Multi Store Model

Attachments:

1.2.1 The model
1.2.1.1 SM- encoded iconic/echoic, stored for fractions of a second, 12 item capacity (according to Sperling)
1.2.1.2 STM- encoded acoustically, stored for 20-30 seconds (according Peterson& P trigrams), capacity 7+-2 (according Miller), 5-9 (according Jacobs).
1.2.1.3 LTM endoded semantically, duration and capacity = unlimited
1.2.2 H.M. op to remove hippocampus- reduce epileptic seizures lost ability to form LTM(but could old LTM&STM)
1.2.3 Clive Wearing damage to his LTM after illness, fully functioning(but short)STM
1.2.4 Glanzer & Kunitz primary-recency-effect-read word list and recall, words could: pass to LTM, decay from STM, still be in SM.
1.2.5 WMM
1.2.6 Oversimplified-KF showed STM, CW showed LTM as multi store structures
2 EYEWITNESS TESTIMONY "a legal term that refers to the evidence given in court or in a police investigation by a person who has witnessed a crime or accident"
2.1 Effect of age on EWT
2.1.1 Anastasi & Rhodes
2.1.1.1 The aim of the experiment was to study the effect of age on EWT.
2.1.1.1.1 3 groups of pts from 3 age groups, young adults (18-25), middle age adults, and older adults (50+) were all shown 24 photographs of different people from all age groups and were asked to rate them on attractiveness. This was a decoy question as the groups were later shown 48 photographs and asked to recall what photographs were the original 24 that they were shown previously in the experiment.
2.1.1.1.1.1 The older group had the most difficulty recognising faces, but it was concluded that pts were much better at recalling people from their own age group. Anastasi & Rhodes claimed that it was because we are more used to being around those in our own age group and so are more used to the situation. They called this the 'differential experience hypothesis' or OWN AGE BIAS.
2.1.2 Dodson & Krueger
2.1.2.1 2 groups of pts from separae age groups: young adults and older adults were shown a video of a mock crime, they were then given a questionnaire on the clip that contained leading questions. Older adults were more likely to produce false memories as their memories are more easily distorted. This implies that older adults do not have as accurate of an EWT as younger adults.
2.1.3 Parker & Carranza
2.1.3.1 Two groups of pts from separate age groups: adolescents(13-18) and young children(5-10) were shown a mock crime video, then shown a line up of people without the actual suspect there.
2.1.3.1.1 The younger children were more likely to guess and pick any culprit whereas the adolescents were able to say that they did not recognise any of the suspects in the line-up. This implies that younger children are more vulnerable to social pressure and so more likely to guess rather than not have an answer.
2.1.3.1.1.1 Children: are more suggestible, have limited language skills, and are more likely to cave into social pressure.
2.2 Effect of leading questions on EWT
2.2.1 LOFTUS & PALMER (1974) supported the 'reconstructive memory hypothesis' arguing that information gathered at time of event is modified by data afterwards. Over time information is integrated to the degree that it's impossible to separate them - in effect we only have one memory.
2.2.1.1 Showed students a film of an accident & asked them to fill out a questionnaire. One question was 'How fast were the cars going when they___' *smashed/collided/bumped. Students that were asked the question with an aggressive verb estimated higher speeds & were more likely to be affected by a leading glass question 1 week later.
2.2.2 Yuille & Cutshall (1986) interviewed 13 eyewitnesses 4 months after an armed robbery, compared current EWT to police reports. Leading Q's had no effect, concluded that real memory CAN be accurate.
2.3 Effect of anxiety on EWT
2.3.1 DEFFENBACHER et al (2004) conducted a meta analysis of real life bank robberies and concluded that witnesses were able to recall the face of the robber 54% of the time in low stress situations, the witnesses who were in high stress situations were able to accurately recall the face of the robber just 42% of the time (high stress).
2.3.1.1 Deffenbacher concluded that the accuracy of EWT will be much lower in high stress situations.
2.3.2 LOFTUS seated pts outside a laboratory when 2 scientists begin yelling inside. In one condition a scientist burst out holding a knife & covered in blood, in the 2nd holding a pen covered in ink, 43% recalled from pen whereas only 33% recalled from knife.
2.3.3 CHRISTIANSON & HUBINETTE (1993) witnesses to bank robberies who had been threatened had more accurate recall than those not involved.
2.3.4 Weapon focus effect states that a person will focus their attention on a weapon(as it is the real cause of anxiety) whilst witnessing a crime and therefore will not see periphery information.
2.3.5 Yerkes Dodson's law
2.4 Witness ENCODES details of the event into LTM(which could be partial/distorted due to violence etc). Witness RETAINS info, memories may be lost or modified during retention and most are lost in the first few minutes.Witness RETRIEVES the memory from the LTM, this mem is a reconstruction of the original incident and this can affect its accuracy. The nature of questioning can affect the recall, especially if Q's are not open.
3 Memory Strategies
3.1 (S)entances (C)hunking (R)hymes (A)crostics (M)ethod of loci/mind maps (P)eg words (S)tories
3.2 Bower et al(1969) gave pts 112 words to learn -they were able to recall 2/3 times more if they were organised than if they were random.
3.3 dual coding -stores/processes image and word
3.4 Organisation -making the most of our memory, to be able to order the information, you have to understand what it means (semantically)
3.5 Elaborative rehearsal -can process info a a much deeper level
4 Cognitive interview (PROM)
4.1 (P)erspective, asking the winess to try and picture the event from another person's perspective, how would it have appeared to them?
4.2 (R)eport everything, interviewer encourages reporting every detail even if it seems irrelevant.
4.3 (O)rder, interviewee asked to report the events in different orders e.g. reversing the order that the events occurred.
4.4 Enter text here

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