The Weimar Republic 1918-33

Matthew T
Mind Map by Matthew T, updated more than 1 year ago
Matthew T
Created by Matthew T almost 6 years ago
252
19

Description

A mind map summarising all the key details of the Weimar Republic 1918-33 for EdExcel GCSE History A Unit 2: Modern World Depth Study - Germany.

Resource summary

The Weimar Republic 1918-33
1 Origins
1.1 Abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II
1.2 Revolution with sailors in Kiel
1.2.1 "Turnip winter" 1917-18 - little food
1.2.2 Defeat to Allies imminent
1.2.3 Flu epidemic
1.3 Chancellor Ebert signed the armistice
2 Weimar Constitution
2.1 Bicameral - Reichstag and Reichsrat
2.2 Secret ballot + universal suffrage (men + women over 20)
2.3 President - head of state, Chancellor - head of affairs
2.4 Proportional representation - although each vote counted, led to small parties + coalitions (weak governments)
2.5 Article 48 - allowed President to rule by decree
2.6 Army + judges opposed to republic
3 Early weaknesses, 1919-20
3.1 Treaty of Versailles
3.1.1 Association of government with humiliation
3.1.2 "November Criminals" - nickname from opposition
3.1.3 Dolchstoss - government "stabbed in the back" German army
3.1.4 Reparations further crippled economy - especially as Saarland had been removed
3.2 Spartacist Revolution 1919
3.2.1 Wanted a similar revolution to Bolshevik revolution in 1917
3.2.2 Communist - left-wing
3.2.3 Karl Liebknecht + Rosa Luxemburg took power in Berlin + Baltic ports
3.2.4 Bavaria: independent socialist state led by Kurt Eisner
3.2.5 Crushed by the Freikorps (ex-soldiers)
3.3 Kapp Putsch 1920
3.3.1 Nationalist - right-wing
3.3.2 Wanted a strong, autocratic government
3.3.3 Wolfgang Kapp + Freikorps seized power in Berlin
3.3.4 Government fled but encouraged strikes - capital stopped
3.3.5 Kapp had little support and fled
4 Economic crisis, 1923
4.1 Ruhr invasion
4.1.1 Germany missed second reparations payment
4.1.2 France + Belgium sent troops to take goods in kind
4.1.3 Passive resistance encouraged - invasion stopped
4.1.4 But economy stopped too...
4.2 Hyperinflation
4.2.1 Due to passive resistance, more + more money printed
4.2.2 By 1923, $1 = 4.2bn marks
4.2.3 Cost of living outstripped income - no food or fuel
4.2.4 Workers paid twice/day
4.2.5 Savings and pensions worthless
4.2.6 Businessmen and borrowers profited
5 Stresemann's reforms in the Golden Era
5.1 Stresemann - German Chancellor
5.2 Economic reform
5.2.1 Rentenmark - temporary replacement of old mark
5.2.2 Reset Reichsmark by gold standard
5.2.3 Dawes Plan 1924 - US loans in exchange for sliding scale of reparations
5.2.4 Young Plan 1929 - reparations cut by 67%
5.2.5 Leading industrial power 1930
5.3 Political reform
5.3.1 Governments more stable
5.3.2 Moderate parties (Social Democrats, Centre Party etc.)
5.3.3 Extremists unpopular (Nazis, Communists etc.)
5.4 Foreign policy reform
5.4.1 1925 Locarno Pacts - borders guaranteed
5.4.2 1926 entered League of Nations - permanent seat on Council
5.4.3 1928 Kellogg-Briand Pact - peaceful solutions to dispute
5.5 Cultural flowering
5.5.1 Film: Marlene Dietrich, Fritz Lang
5.5.2 Philosophy: Theodor Adorno, Martin Heidegger
5.5.3 Science: Werner Heisenberg, Albert Einstein
5.5.4 Art: Walter Gropius (Bauhaus), Otto Dix, Paul Klee
5.5.5 Music: Arnold Schoenberg
5.5.6 Literature and theatre: Erich Maria Remarque, Bertolt Brecht
6 Problems 1924-33
6.1 Dependent on US loans - "dancing on a volcano"
6.2 Agricultural output fell
6.3 President Hindenburg opposed to Republic
6.4 Wall Street Crash 1929 - loans recalled
6.5 Unemployment rose to 4mn by 1930
6.6 Extremist parties (particularly Nazis) rose to power
Show full summary Hide full summary

Similar

World War II Notebook
jenniferfish2014
Implications of War- Causes, Practices, and Effects Unit
AlisonH
The Weimar Republic, 1919-1929
shann.w
Why the Nazis Achieved Power in 1933 - essay intro/conclusion
Denise Draper
Why did Chamberlain's Policy of Appeasement fail to prevent the outbreak of war in 1939?
Leah Firmstone
Causes and Practices of War Quiz
AlisonH
Weimar Revision
Tom Mitchell
Hitler's Chancellorship
c7jeremy
Hitler and the Nazi Party (1919-23)
Adam Collinge
Germany 1918-39
Cam Burke
GCSE History – Social Impact of the Nazi State in 1945
Ben C