Genetic Variation and its Control - B1

Georgia Freeman
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

GCSE Biology (B1) Mind Map on Genetic Variation and its Control - B1, created by Georgia Freeman on 05/24/2014.

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Georgia Freeman
Created by Georgia Freeman over 5 years ago
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Genetic Variation and its Control - B1
1 There are differences of course between different species of plants and animals, there are also differences between individuals of the same species.
1.1 the differences are due partly to the info in cells that they've inherited from their parents.
1.1.1 also, partly from the different environments in which the individuals live and grow
2 GENETIC CONTROL
2.1 Asexual reproduction can be used to produce individuals that are genetically identical to their parent.
2.2 Scientists can now add, remove or change genes to produce the plants and animals they want.
3 Why organisms are different
3.1 similar characteristics = found in genes
3.1.1 genes are passed on in the sex cells(gametes) from which offspring develop
3.2 the nucleus of the cell contains the CHROMOSOMES
3.2.1 CHROMOSOMES carry the genes
3.2.1.1 different genes control the development
3.2.1.1.1 of different characteristics of an organism
3.3 variation can be caused by the conditions in which the organism has developed
3.3.1 (ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS)
4 REPRODUCTION
4.1 SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
4.1.1 is the joining (fusing) of male and female gametes
4.1.1.1 the mixing of the the genetic info of the two parents leads to genetic variation in the offspring
4.2 ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION
4.2.1 involves only one parent and the offspring are genetically identical (clones)
4.2.1.1 CLONING TECHNIQUES
4.2.1.1.1 plants can be grown from cuttings of a parent plant
4.2.1.1.2 TISSUE CULTURE
4.2.1.1.2.1 - using small groups of cells from the parent plant to produce large numbers of plant
4.2.1.1.3 EMBRYO TRANSPLANTS
4.2.1.1.3.1 - splitting apart cells in an embryo and implanting them into host mothers
4.2.1.1.4 ADULT CLONING
4.2.1.1.4.1 - removing a nucleus from an egg cell and inserting one from a body cell: after treatment, the embryo is implanted into a womb
4.2.1.1.4.2 Adult animals that have outstanding features can be cloned for meat or milk production.
4.2.1.1.4.2.1 1. The nucleus is removed from an unfertilised egg cell
4.2.1.1.4.2.1.1 2. a nucleus from a body cell is inserted into the egg cell
4.2.1.1.4.2.1.1.1 3. the cell is triggered to divide via electric shocks
4.2.1.1.4.2.1.1.1.1 4. this embryo has identical genetic info to the body cell
4.2.1.1.4.2.1.1.1.1.1 5. this embryo is inserted into the host womb
4.2.1.1.4.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 its development continues to produce a clone of the parent