Plant Oils and Their Uses - C1

Georgia Freeman
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

GCSE Chemistry Mind Map on Plant Oils and Their Uses - C1, created by Georgia Freeman on 05/26/2014.

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Georgia Freeman
Created by Georgia Freeman over 5 years ago
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Plant Oils and Their Uses - C1
1 Many plants produce useful oils
1.1 can be converted into consumer products
1.1.1 e.g. processed food
2 EMULSIONS
2.1 can be made and have a number of uses
2.2 oils don't dissolve in water
2.2.1 they can be used to produce EMULSIONS
2.2.1.1 = tiny droplets of oil suspended in water
2.3 thicker than oil or water
2.3.1 have many uses that depend on their special properties
2.4 provide better TEXTURE, COATING ABILITY and APPEARANCE
2.4.1 e.g. in salad dressings, ice creams, cosmetics and paints
2.5 emulsifiers have HYDROPHILIC and HYDROPHOBIC properties
2.5.1 EMULSIFIERS MAKE EMULSIONS STABLE
2.5.1.1 they have these properties:
2.5.1.1.1 HYDROPHILIC = water loving
2.5.1.1.2 HYDROPHOBIC = water hating
3 VEGETABLE OILS
3.1 can be hardened to make margarine
3.2 biodiesel produce from vegetable oils
3.3 important foods and fuels because they provide a lot of energy
3.4 higher boiling points than water
3.4.1 so can be used to cook foods at higher temperatures than boiling
3.4.2 produces quicker cooking and different flavours
3.4.2.1 increases energy that the food produces when eaten
4 some fruits, seeds and nuts are rich in oils
4.1 can be extracted
4.2 the plant material is crushed and the oil is removed by pressing
4.2.1 or, the oils is dissolved in a solvent e.g. hexane and the solvent is then distilled off leaving the oil behind
4.2.1.1 water and other impurities are removed
5 SATURATED and UNSATURATED OILS
5.1 UNSATURATED
5.1.1 contain CARBON-CARBON DOUBLE BONDS
5.1.1.1 they are sometimes called POLYUNSATURATED FATS
5.1.2 can be detected by REACTING with BROMINE WATER
5.1.2.1 BROMINE WATER TURNS FROM ORANGE-BROWN TO COLOURLESS WHEN IT REACTS WITH UNSATURED FATS
5.1.3 can be hardened to make them spreadable
5.1.3.1 by reacting them with HYDROGEN in the presence of a NICKEL CATALYST at about 60°c
5.1.3.1.1 HYDROGEN adds to the carbon-carbon double bonds
5.1.3.1.1.1 HYDROGENATED OILS have HIGHER MELTING POINTS
5.1.3.1.1.1.1 SOLIDS at ROOM TEMP
5.1.3.1.1.1.1.1 useful as spreads and in cakes and pastries