PE: Acquiring Movement Skills (Sect B)


(PE AS) Mind Map on PE: Acquiring Movement Skills (Sect B), created by dayj on 05/19/2013.
Mind Map by dayj, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by dayj almost 10 years ago

Resource summary

PE: Acquiring Movement Skills (Sect B)
  1. Classification of Motor Skills & Abilities
    1. Continuums
      1. Muscular Movement GROSS - FINE
        1. Environmental Influence OPEN - CLOSED
          1. Continuity DISCRETE - SERIAL - CONTINUOUS
            1. Pacing SELF PACED - EXTERNALLY PACED
              1. Difficulty SIMPLE - COMPLEX
                1. Organisational LOW - HIGH
                2. Methods of Skill Practice
                  1. Part Practice A,B,C all learnt separately and then put into the skill as a whole. Good for low organisational, complex, dangerous and serial skills
                    1. Whole Practice,when the skill is learnt as a whole like cycling. Good for high organisational and low complexity skills
                      1. Progressive Part Practice A, B, AB, C, ABC, D, ABCD etc. Good for complex, serial skills and helps to reduce information load and maintain fluency of the skill
                        1. Whole-Part-Whole Practice, the skill is learnt as whole and then weaknesses in the routine are found. They're then practiced separately, and then put back into the routine. Good for
                        2. Classification of Abilities Relating to Movement Skills
                          1. Innate/Genetically Determined abilities are determined partly by our genes and inheritance from our parents
                            1. Stable & Enduring abilities tend to remain unchanged but can be affected by our experiences and maturation
                              1. Support, Underline or Underpin skills usually needs us to have several supporting abilities if we are going to learn the skill effectively
                                1. Gross Motor Ability identified by Fleishman, usually involve movement and related to physical fitness. These include; dynamic strength, static strength, explosive strength, stamina, extent flexibility, dynamic flexibility, gross body co-ordination, gross body equilibrium & trunk strength
                                  1. Psychomotor Abilities (mental) include; multi-limb co-ordination, response orientation, reaction time, speed of movement, finger dexterity, manual dexterity rate control & aiming. These again were identifies by Fleishman
                                2. Development of Motor Skills and the Use of Practice Methods
                                  1. Stages of Learning
                                    1. Cognitive is the initial stage where the learner tries to replicate the perfect technical model. They will begin to practice with trial and error, slowly improving but still making frequent mistakes.The student may use selective attention to help them learn the skill. Methods of teaching mainly come from verbal or visual
                                      1. Associative is the second stage of learning. It is usually the longest stage of learning and some never progress beyond it. Less mistakes are made and the skill becomes more fluent and aesthetically pleasing, the fundamentals are learnt and mastered and the skill becomes more consistent. The performer can pick up on internal feedback as well as external. The skill can be broken into sub routines to aid with learning
                                        1. Autonomous is the final and third stage. The performer is so used to completing the skill due to over practice he can now complete it subconsciously whilst thinking about the opposition and tactics. The motor programme is stored in the long term memory store and with the right stimulus can be retrieved very quickly. The performer does not need to worry about external feedback as much as he can use his vast internal knowledge, the performer may drop back to the associative stage if the skill is not routinely practiced
                                        2. Type of Guidance
                                          1. Visual Guidance, usually used at all stage of learning. Can include wall charts, pictures, diagrams and models. The visual examples are often replicas of the perfect technical model and can help the performer to use kinaesthesis in their body. Drawbacks can be they're boring, include too much information or they lack information
                                            1. Verbal Guidance, often used with other forms of guidance so to direct the performer and give them cues. It must be clear and concise. The coach must make sure that the performer can learn remember what they have been taught. Drawbacks includes the fact some skills are too complex to describe, details must be short and the coach must make sure the learner understands
                                              1. Manual Guidance involves the coach holding and physically manipulating the body of the learner into the correct movement.
                                                1. Mechanical Guidance, this is where equipment is used to support the leaner and shape the skill. They help to learner to build up kinaesthetic sense of the skill, and help make the practice of dangerous skills safe. Disadvantages include not allowing the learner how to correct mistakes and it may implement the wrong feelings for the skill
                                                2. Practice Methods
                                                  1. Massed Practice is when the skill is learnt without any breaks or rest intervals. Practice sessions are long, good for grooving in habitual skills, and for experienced, motivated learners with good levels of fitness. Suitable for simple, discrete skills of short duration. Also good when skill would be played when player is slightly fatigued. Disadvantages can be fatigue and demotivation
                                                    1. Distributed Practice is where the practice includes rest intervals. Good for low levels of fitness and motivation.Rest intervals allow for extrinsic feedback. It is also good for complex and dangerous skills.
                                                      1. Fixed Practice is when a specific movement is practiced in a specific environment. This is good for learning closed skills that can be over-learned and become habitual
                                                        1. Varied Practiced is where the skill is practiced in many environments and is ideal for open skills. This helps to build schema
                                                          1. Mental Rehearsal helps to focus the attention of the skills they're about to perform and involves no physical movement
                                                        2. Information Processing During the Performance of the Skill
                                                          1. Models of Information Proccessing
                                                            1. Welfords Model includes; display, sensory information, sense organs, perceptual mechanisms, effector mechanisms, response and feedback in that oder
                                                              1. Look at textbook for diagrams (Page 156)
                                                                1. Whitings Model includes; display, receptor systems, perceptual mechanisms, translatory mechanisms, output and feedback in that order
                                                                2. Reaction Time
                                                                  1. The time between the onset of the stimulus and the start of the movement in response to it. Made up of reaction time and movement time
                                                                    1. Hicks Law is where choice reaction time increases linearly as the number of stimuli/choice alternatives increase
                                                                      1. Practice, mental rehearsal, experience, warm up and anticipation are all methods of reducing response times
                                                                      2. Memory Stores
                                                                        1. Short Term SensoryStores has a very large captivity but small short time (0.25-1 second) to hold the memory
                                                                          1. Short Term Memory can hold 5-9 pieces of information for 30 seconds. Often referred to as the workplace, it is here where the information is compared to past experiences
                                                                            1. Long Term Memory holds information that has been well learned and rehearsed. Its captivity is thought to be endless and information is held for a very long time, perhaps infinitely
                                                                              1. Short-Term Sensory Stores encodes selectively attentioned information into the Short-Term Memory.From there information is compared to information which is retrieved from the Long-Term Memory and from there a decision is made on what to do. If the memory is repeatedly processed it maybe stored in the long-Term Memory
                                                                            2. Motor Control of Skills and its Impact Upon Developing Effectiveness in Physical Activity
                                                                              1. Motor Programmes [MPs/EMPs]
                                                                                1. A generalised series or pattern of movements stored in the long term memory
                                                                                  1. MPs or EMPs can be broken down into sub routines to aid with learning
                                                                                    1. Open Loop Control (lvl 1) explains how rapid movements are performed in sport. It is a system of subconcious control that does not have reference feedback. The plan or EMP is stored in the long term memory and uses memory trace to move the effective muscles quickly
                                                                                      1. Closed Loop Control (lvl 2) involves feedback and this is termed the perceptual trace. The skill and feedback is short, often fed through internal feedback via kinaesthises and proprioception
                                                                                        1. Closed Loop Conrol (lvl 3) has a longer feedback loop because the information is relayed back to the brain. The brain in turn controls and modifies the movemnt by passing corrective messages to the working muscles. Therefore the loop involves both internal and external feedback
                                                                                        2. Feedback
                                                                                          1. Positive feedback involves praise following success
                                                                                            1. Negative feedback can invlolve punishment after the movement was performed incorrectly
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