Developmental Psychology - Attachment

Bekkii Kilham
Mind Map by Bekkii Kilham, updated more than 1 year ago
Bekkii Kilham
Created by Bekkii Kilham over 5 years ago
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Mind Map on Developmental Psychology - Attachment, created by Bekkii Kilham on 01/24/2015.

Resource summary

Developmental Psychology - Attachment
1 Attachment
1.1 Strong emotional tie that develops over time between an infant and their primary caregiver(s)
1.1.1 Depends on interaction between 2 people rather than simply being together
1.2 Four Characteristics
1.2.1 Seeking proximity , especially in times of stress
1.2.2 Distress or separation
1.2.3 Pleasure when reunited
1.2.4 General orientation of behaviour towards the P.C.
1.3 Explanations
1.3.1 Learning Theory
1.3.1.1 Attachment is a learned process through nurture e.g. Classical conditioning and Operant learning
1.3.2 Evolutionary Theory
1.3.2.1 Bowlby's theory-attachment is important for survival, it's an inherited behaviour(nature)
2 Learning Theory
2.1 Classical Conditioning
2.1.1 Learning theory says we have to LEARN to attach and we do so because of FOOD
2.1.2 According to learning theory baby has to learn to form attachment with mother.
2.1.2.1 By process of C.C. baby forms association between mother (a neutral stimulus) & feeling of pleasure that comes from being fed (innate unconditioned response)
2.1.2.1.1 At first baby simply feels comforted by food. However, each time it is fed, mother is there. Quickly associated mother with pleasure of being fed.
2.1.2.1.1.1 Before long, mother stimulates feeling of pleasure on own, even without food.
2.1.2.1.1.1.1 Means baby feels happier when mother is near. Beginning of attachment.
2.2 Operant Learning
2.2.1 Learning takes place because of ACTIONS and REWARDS.
2.2.2 In operant conditioning association made between an action and a reward.
2.2.2.1 This reward acts as a reinforcer because it causes the action to be repeated.
2.2.3 BF Skinner
2.2.3.1 Demonstrated process of O.C. in animals like rats
2.2.3.2 The Skinner Box
2.2.3.2.1 Mouse performs ACTION: presses lever
2.2.3.2.1.1 Mouse receives REWARD: food relieves hunger
2.2.3.2.1.1.1 Reward REINFORCES the action, so mouse repeats it
2.2.3.2.1.2 Baby performs ACTION:cries
2.2.3.2.1.2.1 Baby receives REWARD given food to relieve hunger
2.2.3.2.1.2.1.1 Reward REINFORCES the action, so baby repeats it
3 Evolutionary Theory
3.1 Tendency to form attachments is INNATE (Present in both infants and mothers)
3.2 Bowlby (1969)
3.2.1 Attachment important for survival. Infants physically helpless-need adults to feed,care for & protect them.
3.2.1.1 Cannot survive without such assistance. Importance of attachment may be fundamental in long term. Foundation for all future emotional relationships.
3.2.1.1.1 Born with INNATE tendency to form attachment
3.2.2 States attachment in infants is similar to that of imprinting
3.2.2.1 Important in the short term for survival and also in long term regarding adult relationships
3.2.2.1.1 Number of studies have shown adults are less likely to mate with individuals with whom they were raised.
3.2.2.1.1.1 Shepher's (1971)
3.2.2.1.1.1.1 Found none of 3000 Israeli marriage records he studied was between individuals that had been raised together on the same communal farms
3.3 Lorenz (1952) Imprinting
3.3.1 Geese- Lorenz set 2 groups
3.3.1.1 Lorenz first moving thing seen by goose chicks after hatching
3.3.1.1.1 Chicks followed him as if he were their mother
3.3.1.1.1.1 When they were adult, they performed mating displays with him and ignored other geese
3.3.1.2 Mother goose first moving thing seen by goose chicks after hatching
3.3.1.2.1 Chicks followed her when young
3.3.1.2.1.1 When adult,performed mating rituals to other geese
3.3.2 Found geese have a 'critical period' for imprinting
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