Study Design Psychology

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Note by hbora, updated more than 1 year ago
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Created by hbora almost 8 years ago
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12 Psychology Note on Study Design Psychology, created by hbora on 09/15/2013.

Resource summary

Page 1

AOS 1: Mind, Brain and Body• concepts of normal waking consciousness and altered states of consciousness including daydreaming and alcohol-induced, in terms of levels of awareness, content limitations, controlled and automatic processes, perceptual and cognitive distortions, emotional awareness, self-control and time orientation • sleep as an altered state of consciousness: purpose of sleep, characteristics and patterns of the stages of sleep including rapid eye movement (REM) and the non-rapid eye movement (NREM) stages of sleep • methods used to study the level of alertness in normal waking consciousness and the stages of sleep: – measurement of physiological responses including electroencephalograph (EEG), electromyograph (EMG), electro-oculargraph (EOG), heart rate, body temperature and galvanic skin response (GSR) – the use of sleep laboratories, video monitoring and self reports • the – loss of REM and NREM sleep – sleep recovery patterns including amount of sleep required, REM rebound and microsleeps – sleep-wake cycle shifts during adolescence compared with child and adult sleep including delayed onset of sleep and need for sleep effects of total and partial sleep deprivation: • the – roles of the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system (somatic and autonomic), and interaction between cognitive processes of the brain and its structure including: autonomic nervous system (sympathetic and parasympathetic) – roles of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex in the control of motor, somatosensory, visual and auditory processing in humans; primary cortex and association areas – hemispheric specialisation: the cognitive and behavioural functions of the right and left hemispheres of the cerebral cortex, non-verbal versus verbal and analytical functions•contribution of studies to the investigation of cognitive processes of the brain and implications for the understanding of consciousness including: – studies of aphasia including Broca’s aphasia and Wernicke’s aphasia – spatial neglect caused by stroke or brain injury– split-brain studies including the work of Roger Sperry and Michael Gazzaniga

AOS 2: Memory• mechanism of memory formation: – the neuron in memory formation including the role of axons, dendrites, synapses and neurotransmitters – role of the temporal lobe including the hippocampus and the amygdala– consolidation theory– memory decline over the lifespan– amnesia resulting from brain trauma and neurodegenerative diseases including dementia and Alzheimer’s disease• models for explaining human memory: – Atkinson-Shiffrin’s multi-store model of memory including maintenance and elaborative rehearsal, serial position effect and chunking– Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch’s model of working memory: central executive, phonological loop, visuo-spatial sketchpad, episodic buffer– levels of processing as informed by Fergus Craik and Robert Lockhart– organisation of long-term memory including declarative (episodic and semantic) and procedural memory, and semantic network theory • strengths and limitations of theories of forgetting:– forgetting curve as informed by the work of Hermann Ebbinghaus– retrieval failure theory including tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon– interference theory– motivated forgetting as informed by the work of Sigmund Freud including repression and suppression– decay theory• manipulation and improvement of memory: – measures of retention including the relative sensitivity of recall, recognition and relearning – use of context dependent cues and state dependent cues – mnemonic devices including acronyms, acrostics and narrative chaining – effect of misleading questions on eye-witness testimonies including the reconstructive nature of memory informed by the work of Elizabeth Loftus

AOS 1: Learning• behaviours not dependent on learning including reflex action, fixed action patterns and behaviours due to physical growth and development (maturation) • neural basis of learning: – the development of neural pathways including the role of axons, dendrites, synapses and neurotransmitters – developmental plasticity and adaptive plasticity of the brain: changes to the brain in response to learning and experience; timing of experiences • applications, and comparisons, of learning theories: – classical conditioning as informed by Ivan Pavlov: roles of neutral, unconditioned, conditioned stimuli; unconditioned and conditioned responses – applications of classical conditioning: graduated exposure, aversion therapy, flooding – trial-and-error learning – three-phase model of operant conditioning as informed by B.F. Skinner: positive and negative reinforcement, response cost, punishment and schedules of reinforcement – applications of operant conditioning: shaping, token economies – comparisons of classical and operant conditioning in terms of the processes of acquisition,extinction, stimulus generalisation, stimulus discrimination, spontaneous recovery, role of learner, timing of stimulus and response, and nature of response (reflexive/voluntary) – observational learning (modelling) processes in terms of the role of attention, retention, reproduction, motivation, reinforcement as informed by Albert Bandura’s social learning theory • the extent to which ethical principles were applied to classic research investigations into learning including John Watson’s ‘Little Albert’ experiment

AOS 2: Mental Health• concepts of normality and differentiation of mental health from mental illness • systems of classification of mental conditions and disorders: underlying principles of classification; strengths and limitations of discrete categorical (DSM-IV and ICD-10) and dimensional (graded and transitional) approaches to classification of mental disorders • use of a biopsychosocial framework (the interaction and integration of biological, psychological and social factors) as an approach to considering physical and mental health • application of a biopsychosocial framework to understanding the relationship between stress and physical and mental wellbeing: – physiological and psychological characteristics of responses to stress including fight-flight response, eustress and distress – psychological determinants of the stress response; strengths and limitations of Richard Lazarus and Susan Folkman’s Transactional Model of Stress and Coping – social, cultural and environmental factors that exacerbate and alleviate the stress response – allostasis (stability through change brought about by the brain’s regulation of the body’s response to stress) as a model that integrates biological, psychological and social factors that explain an individual’s response to stress – strategies for coping with stress including biofeedback, meditation/relaxation, physical exercise,social support

The research methodologies and ethical principles for Units 3 and 4 are: • experimental research: construction of research hypotheses; identification and operationalisation of independent and dependent variables; identification of extraneous and potential confounding variables including individual participant differences, non-standardised instructions and procedures, order effects, experimenter effect, placebo effects; ways of minimising confounding and extraneous variables including type of sampling procedures, type of experiment, counterbalancing, single and double blind procedures, placebos, standardised instructions and procedures; evaluation of different types of experimental research designs including independent-groups, matched-participants, repeated-measures; reporting conventions as per American Psychological Association (APA) format • sampling procedures in selection and allocation of participants: random sampling; stratified sampling; random-stratified sampling; convenience sampling; random allocation of participants to groups; control and experimental groups • techniques of qualitative and quantitative data collection: case studies; observational studies; self- reports; questionnaires • statistics: measures of central tendency including mean, median and mode; interpretation of p-values and conclusions; evaluation of research in terms of generalising the findings to the population • ethical principles and professional conduct: the role of the experimenter; protection and security of participants’ rights; confidentiality; voluntary participation; withdrawal rights; informed consent procedures; use of deception in research; debriefing.

AOS 1: Mind, Brain and Body

AOS 2: Memory

AOS 1: Learning

AOS 2: Mental Health

Research Methods

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