Note by , created over 6 years ago

History Note on China, created by sophiesmith11 on 04/27/2013.

Created by sophiesmith11 over 6 years ago
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People: Mao Zedong (communist), Chiang Kai-Shek (Nationalist), Lin Biao (head of PLA), General George Marshall (failed ceasefire)Events:  July 1946-May 1947 - GMD offensive suceeded in capturing control of large cities and establishing a GMD controlled 'corridor' along the coast of Manchuria.                                            - From their rural base, the communists adopted a guerrilla warfare strategy against the GMD.                                            -The PLA & local communist militia forces were able to isolate the Nationalist's city strongholds by destroying the GMD's city based forces.                                            - By Spring 1947, the communist's control over Northern Manchuria was unshakable.             May 1947-Nov 1948 - The PLA launched full-scale assaults on GMD positions, but were unsuccessful due to the lack of air force.                                           - The fighting caused serious losses on GMD forces and reduced troops morale                                           - The Nationalist forces became trapped in Manchuria.            Dec 1948- Oct 1949 - The Nationalists were defeated in a 65 day battle at the railway junction of Xuzhou.                                          - Beijing was captured in January, so the whole of Northern China was under Communist control.                                          - In April, the PLA attacked key cities along the Yangzi river, capturing Nationalist strongholds Nanjing & Shanghai. The way to the south was now open.                                          - One force of the PLA  struck westwards and another from the south. Most of China was now under Communist control.                                          - Mao called a Political Consultative Conference in Beijing with representatives from 14 other parties. The PRC was formed on 1st October 1949.                                          - Kai-Shek fled to Taiwan and established a GMD government there. Causes: Failure of the ceasefire, instability in georgraphical control and difference in political ideology.

Mao Zedong Thought : Mass Line (officials should remain in touch with the masses), self reliance, Class Struggle (eradicate classes), Egalitarianism (simple life/equality), mass mobilisation, continuous revolution.PRC: cautious at first and offered compensation to former owners and shareholders of nationalised assets.Middle class former nationalists were invited to stay.Problems facing CPC: -agricultural production fell as peasants were fighting in the civil war, food shortages, industrial production fell, rift between western powers.Solutions/Controls: strict regulation of economy - expenditure was cut, taxes were raised, new currency.                             confiscation of nationalist property and foreign assets                            banks and utilities were nationalised.Mao's aims to improve China: get rid of opposition                                            get rid of bourgeoisie                                            get rid of warlords                                            sort out finance                                            unite others under communismCampaigns       

The Resist America & Aid Korea Campaign: Foreigners and Americans became identified as enemies of the PRC.                                                                     Many foreigners were arrested and charged with being spies                                                                     Christian churches were forcibly closed.                                                                     By the end of 1950, most foreigners had left china and the country became closed to western influences.                                                                     Chinese suspected of spying for foreign powers were targeted and any institution with western links came under suspicion. The Suppression of Counter-revolutionaries: Focused on internal threats to the Chinese revolution                                                                       Included anyone that had links to the GMD, bandits and members of religious sectors.                                                                       Many were denounced, investigated, punished and publicly executed The Three-Antis Campaign: Targeted corruption, waste and obstructionist bureaucracy                                             Involved mass meetings where officials and manager were denounced                                             Party members were forced to subject themselves to self criticism                                             Rooted out many corrupt practices.The Five-Antis Campaign: Directed at the bourgeoisie                                          Targeted bribery, tax evasion, theft of state property, cheating on government contracts and economic espionage.                                          worker's organisations were enlisted to investigate employees business affairs                                          Group criticisms were organised to confess crimes or denounce others.                                           Those found guilty faced fines, confiscation of property and being sent to labour camps. Many committed suicide.                      

Civil War (`946-1949)

Consolidation of Mao's Regime (1949-1953)