Week 3 - DE100 Investigating Psychology

Anneliese Shaw
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Anneliese Shaw
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BSc DE100 Investigating Psychology (Investigating Intelligence) Note on Week 3 - DE100 Investigating Psychology, created by Anneliese Shaw on 10/03/2016.

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Page 1

Investigating Intelligence, Chapter 3

challenges in constructing a culturally neutral intelligence testdifficulties of determining what it is that intelligence tests actually measureRole of IQ measurement in the diagnosis of learning disabilitycriticisms of current diagnostic criteriaoutline concept of emotional intelligence, how it differs from traditional notions of intelligence.Challenges in constructing a culturally neutral intelligence test Raven's Progressive Matrices test pp 85 - 87- not affected by schooling/knowledge/experienceno words = no reading abilityno pictures = no issue with different culturesused in test of fluid intelligence - logical thinking + problem solving, no knowledge neededby John C Raven, 1930's - culture neutral test, simple and quick to administer3 versions standard - general population Advanced - more complex for those do very well in standard coloured matrices - children/learning disabilities Standard - 60 'matrix problems' see pp 86 for example - ascending order difficulty - 40 minutes - need to find missing piece in a patternProblems: pg 88-89still an intelligence testschooling helps feel more familiar with testing - so would perform betterpen and paper - 'cultural tools' experience needed - how much are they used to using them - linked to educationreading direction - culturally dependent - seperate test in arabic countries due to different reading directionclass - lower classes, less confident, perform less wellneed to understand verbal instructionssome analytical/puzzling skill = better performancetesting should recoginse that culture, experience and intellectual ability can't be seperated. so culture/class/experience will always have an impactskills tested are not relevant everywhere or important to all.Taiwan - 'intelligent' have characteristics Western tests ignore. - emotional intelligenceKenya - 'intelligent' = doing chores without reminderAfrica - thinking slowely about a problempg 90 - 91What is intelligence - need to abandon current analogies (strength)belief intellectual strength measurable and independent of culture like physical strength and is universal, Ken Richardson beliefs this misleadingmore appropriate analogy = 'distance' belief more intelligent if match cultural values testedLearning disability pg 94learning disability - a condition that affects how a person learns, understands and cope with life.disability = general impairment of abilitieslearning difficulties = specific problem ( reading, maths,etc) causing barrier to higher achievmentlearning disability - mild, moderate, severe or profound - different levels, some can cope and work, others need 24hr caremany causes - genetic (down's), autism, epilepsy birth issues cause brain damage, illness or injury.diagnosis - for educational/support needs can affect life outcome, what help/support givendiagnosis pg 96 - 98diagnosis - 3 criteria: signicicant intellectual functioning difficulties - IQ tests, WAIS, <70, believed can be measured significant difficulty in adapting to environment and interaction with others - BPS introduced in 2000, assessment of how well function, seen as important alongside IQ these occur in childhood Less <70 significant due to normal distribution, which shows it only affects 2.3% of population, 2 standard deviations from averageProblems pg 99 - 101practitionars see overall score less important that that of subtests and other info overall iq score seen as only accurate withing 4 pts. (margin of error)but in diagnosis overall score used and most importantSimon whitaker (08) ? iq tests for diagnosis, believs least accurate in lower iq range, believes margin of error = 13 pts as most affected by testing situationnow believed IQ not good measure, and should be judged on a case by case basis. everyone individualdefinitions of learning disability need to be revised : whitaker suggests:need of community/educational servicesfailure to cope with intellectual demands of environmentcan't take core of themselves/dependentsunable to protect against harmie not 'intellectual functioning' but 'intelectual demands instead this would not be included in iq testdoes it prevent them doing certain things?so more qualitive assessment of needsEmotional Intelligence pp 104 - 111Weschler: 'intelligent behaviour' not just IQbelieved people need to use social skills in order to deal effectively with the environmentEmotional intelligence-1990, Peter Salovey and John de Mayerbelief can be measuredused in applied settings such as job recruitmentmonitor feelings and emotions of self and others, to discriminate among them and use that information to guide actionssocial and emotional skills needed for success2002 space-space the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso emotional intelligence test space (MSC EIT)141 items, 40 minutes, paper or computer8 subtests (tasks) 2 per branch 4 components or branches of emotional intelligence, seperate but interrelated see fig 3.4 pg 106, importance in this order: must be competent in perceiving to be competent in using, and so on. perceiving emotion - recognising emotions in self and others. Using emotion - using them in thinking, solving problems etc. understanding emotion - label them and recognise similarities/differences managing emotion - modify them and responses and recognise how appropriate they are no right or wrong answersconsensus scoring - answers compared with 000's others stored in database - works due to 'common understanding'2007, British government, social and emotional aspects of learning (seal)teach social and emotional skills, behaviour, attendance, learning, etc.2010-90% primary and 70% secondarybelief that emotional intelligence can be learnedStill debate as to whether it is: an ability personality characteristic learnable skill

Page 2

Video: Intelligence and the Brain

3 studies - explores biological basis of psychology.What are similarities and differences between methods?Cattel Study - used fMRI while asking non-verbal odd one out questions, testing fluid intelligence teenage study - tested over 4 years, test at beginning and end, fMRI used, verbal and non-verbal testsToxins test - group of farmers, battery tests over 4 years, including Wais, weschler memory, cognitive, etcDo they use brain imaging techniques?Cattel and Teenage study both used brain imagingWhat are possible practical applications?cattel - will help in diagnosis and treatment of cognitive impairmentTeenage - Education system, selection and streamingToxins - Health and safety guidelines for use and handling of toxic substanceshow can changes in the envirolment influence brain development?Toxins affect nervous system, causing deterioration in cognitive functionTeenagers can be affected by the support they get.how do they teenage fluctuation and toxin effects study define environment?teenage - education, socio-economic status and parental involvementtoxin - workplaceIn-text citation: Intelligence and the brain (The Open University, 2014)Reference list: The Open University (2014) ‘Intelligence and the brain’ [Video], DE100 Investigating psychology 1. Available at https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=842334§ion=2URL (Accessed date).

Page 3

Audio: Testing the Emotions

What are the main advantages of SEAL?What are the main disadvantages of SEAL?What are the methods of evaluating the effectiveness of such programs?What are the abilities and skills mentioned as relevant to social and emotional learning?Is the term intelligence appropriate in this context?In-text citation: Testing the emotions (The Open University, 2014)Reference list: The Open University (2014) ‘Testing the emotions’ [Audio], DE100 Investigating psychology 1. Available athttps://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=842334§ion=3 URL (Accessed date)

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