Contrasting Kin Selection Theory and Empathy-Altruism Theory Kin selection - focuses on genes, operating on the biological level. In empathy-altruism, the focus is on the human emotion, empathy. Kin selection - altruism is seen as behaviour with a cost to the individual. In empathy-altruism, altruism is seen as behaviour that increases another's welfare. Kin selection - based on egoism. In empathy-altruism, humans can be altruistic, but can also be egoistic. Kin selection - can explain the observations, but not why. It cannot explain why people behave altruistically to people they're not related to. In empathy-altruism, it can explain why people react altruistically, but not why some people don't. Kin selection - it is difficult to test evolutionary theories, but it's possible to get empirical support. In empathy-altruism, it is relatively easy to test, but difficult to operationalise something like empathy.