'the movement of people from the central areas of a city into the suburbs'
Causes of Suburbanisation in the UK Growth of transport means people can easily access the city centre Council housing built in the 50's and 60's was built on the edge of existing settlements greater ability to work from home decline in heavy industry few planning controls in the 30's desire for home ownership and garden population increase lower price of land further from CBD inner city decline perception of better education
Effects of Suburbanisation in the UK Growth of out of town shopping centres increased use of cars growth of out of town office parks growth of transport system - expensive to commute surrounding towns become engulfed by outward spread of the urban area concentration of lower income residents in the city people spread out so it is expensive to put in services
Solutions to problems of Suburbanisation Green belt land revitalization of inner cities that have declined regeneration of inner cities brownfield to be used over greenfield development New towns
'decline of proportion of population living in urban areas due to people moving out of cities into rural areas'
Causes of counterurbanisation increased urban prices farms sell unwanted land because of struggle more people work from home due to technology advances people want to escape air pollution, dirt and crime want a cleaner safer and quieter area particularly families
Effects of counter urbanisation increased value on housing in rural areas increased pressure on green-belt land local services close older houses are converted and modernised tension between new comers and locals
'the movement of people back to live in an old city center or inner city area due to regeneration and gentrification'
Gentrificationareas are improved by more affluent people moving in and improving their properties
Characteristics re-habilitation of old houses and streets on an individual basis low incomes replaced by more affluent professional groups house prices rise can cause friction between new-comers and locals carried out by individuals not authorities increase in bars, restaurants and higher status services can lead to jobs in building and design
Regeneration schemesinitiated by successive governments from the start of the 1980's onwards. re-generate areas of urban decline, usually innercity areas. initiatives include: Enterprise zones Property-led regeneration Partnerships between national governments and the private sector
'an urban area is in decline in terms of its economy, population and quality of life'
Multiple Deprivation the well being of individuals measured against a number of indicators such as education, employment, access to healthcare etc falls below a level regarded as a reasonable minimum.
Urban Despairreaction of urban dwellers to decline and deprivation e.g. crime and vandalism.
Social Exclusionwhere an individual or group is excluded from a meaningful place in society due to their economic or social circumstances
Characteristics of Urban DeclinePolitical- barely opportunity to join in community decisionsSocial- low % of free school meals-crime-poor education-low standard of healthcare-high % of state benefitsEconomic- low level of income-limited employment opportunities-limited access to leisure services-high % of lone families and pensionersPhysical- graffitti-poor quality housing-vandalism-litter-pollution