Creole - Natural language developed from mixing parent languages; consists of a mother tongue Pidgin - Mixture of two or more languages, no mother tongue, used for communication between different languages - for trading etc Hegemony - Mainstream cultures absorbing things which start as counter-culture
Borrowing/Loan Words - New word from another language, can be anglicised; 'chocolate' from 'chocolat' Eponym - Name of a person after whom something is name; 'Achilles' Heel', 'Braille' Propriety Names - Name of a product given by an organisation that becomes the name for all products; 'Hoover', 'Walkman'
Prefixes - Addition of bound morpheme to the beginning of an existing word; 'mega', 'uber' Suffixes - Bound morpheme to a word's end; '(radical)ising' Conversion - Changing word class without adding a suffix; 'Text' is a noun and verb Compound - Combining separate words, sometimes using hyphen; 'man-flu', 'carbon-footprint' Back Formation - Removal of imagined affix; 'Editor' became 'Edit' Blend - Fusing of two words; 'Smog' = 'Smoke' + 'Fog'
Semantic Shift: Amelioration - Word takes on positive meaning; 'pretty' used to mean 'sly' Pejoration - Word take negative meaning; 'idiot' used to mean 'private citizen' Weakening - Word loses strength; 'soon' used to mean 'immediately', now means 'in a short while' Narrowing - Becomes more specific in meaning; 'meat' used for any food, now is flesh of animal Broadening - Becomes wider in meaning; 'place' used to mean a broad street, now is an 'area'
Abbreviations: Acronym - Lexicalised initial letters 'LASER', 'RADAR' Initialism - Word from initial letters being pronounced; 'CD', 'DVD' Clipping - Shortening an existing word; 'Edit' from 'Editor'