Which of the following tools should be used when a team is generating and prioritizing a list of options that include highly controversial issues?
Nominal group technique
The primary factor in the successful implementation of six sigma is to have
The necessary resources
The support and leadership of top management
Explicit customer requirements
A comprehensive training program
Which of the following tools would be most appropriate for collecting data to study the symptoms of a problem?
Activity network diagram
Positional, cyclical, and temporal variations are most commonly analyzed in
Cause and effect diagrams
The most important aspect of functional requirements is that they
Describe a single, measurable performance
Describe how a product or service should operate
Be traceable to the voice of the customer
Provide upper and lower performance limits
Which of the following control charts is most appropriate for monitoring the number of defects on different sample sizes?
Which of the following is most important in evaluating and understanding design intent?
Identifying the functional requirement
Brainstorming failure modes
Conducting computer simulations
If a process follows an exponential distribution with a mean of 25, what is the standard deviation for the process?
Which of the following activities is value-added?
A black belt plans to test the performance of workers before and after training. Which of the following hypothesis tests should be used to determine whether the training actually improved the workers’ performance?
2-sample z test
2-sample t test
Paired t test
The purpose of using control charts is to
Determine if the process is performing within specifications
Evaluate process performance over time
Determine how to recreate the process
Detect the causes of nonconformities
Data being used in the initial set-up of a process are assumed to have a normal distribution. If the nominal (target) is set at the center of the distribution, and the specification limits are set at +/-3 sigma from the center, then Cpk is equal to
Which of the following is defined as continuous, incremental improvement?
To assess the significance of factors in either a fractional- or a full-factorial experiment structure, a black belt can use
Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
Fault tree analysis (FTA)
Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA)
Evolutionary operation (EVOP)
Which of the following performance measures is most appropriate for evaluating the tangible effects of a six sigma project?
Team member absentee rate
Unsolicited compliments from customers
Which of the following is the best way to enhance the long-term availability of a machine?
Total productive maintenance
Computerized SPC systems
Increased operator training
Typically, which of the following activities is done earliest in the formation of a project team?
Select the team
Identify the objective
Identify the sponsor
Allocate the resources
A black belt is developing a failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) for the hamburger preparation station in a fast-food restaurant. The following ratings were developed for the low-heat temperature failure mode.
Severity = 9
Occurrence = 2
Detection = 1
What is the risk priority number (RPN) for this FMEA?
Which of the following statements is true about the theory of constraints?
It views a system in terms of discrete processes.
Most constraints are physical.
Most constraints are the result of policies.
It focuses on continuous improvement.
Which of the following describes the 95% CI of a 20% absentee rate in a department with 30 people?
A system that delivers products or services at the correct time and in the correct quantities is referred to as
Poka-yoke is best defined as
Improving machine efficiency
Reducing field failures to virtually zero
Capturing the voice of the customer
Preventing controllable defects
A measurement system analysis is designed to assess the statistical properties of
Which of the following best describes a controlled variable whose influence on a response is being studied?
For a process, Xbar i= 35.0 and sigma = 5.00. If the subgroup size is n = 5, what is the value for the upper control limit for the process?
Which of the following tools can be used to identify waste or non-value-added activities?
Force field analysis
A six sigma project to reduce billing statement expenses has shown the need to hire two additional mailroom clerks. Based on this information, which of the following metrics should be used to measure the financial benefits of the project?
Cost of poor quality
Return on investment
Net present value
Internal rate of return
A tree diagram can be used to do which of the following?
Allow a team to identify root causes even when no credible data exist
Show a causality relationship
Present data from a check sheet
Reveal the true level of a problem’s complexity
Which of the following terms is used to describe the risk of a type I error in a hypothesis test?
Level of significance
Which of the following is a component of a visual factory?
Zero defect policies
Equipment service manuals
When sigma = 10, what sample size is needed to specify a 95% CI of +/- 3 units from the mean?
A company has installed a system that prevents orders with incorrect information from being forwarded to production scheduling. This is an example of which of the following lean tools?
After the major headings of a tree diagram have been broken into greater detail, what is the next step that should be taken?
Assemble the right team
Review the diagram for logical flow and completeness
Revise the problem statement
Choose the tree diagram goal statement
A six sigma team has been formed to improve an existing process. Which of the following tools should the team use first to gain a clear understanding of the current process?
Latin square DOE
Which of the following techniques dramatically shortens changeover times?
Work in process (WIP)
Single minute exchange of dies (SMED)
Correction, over-production, inventory, and motion are all examples of
5S target areas
A store uses signs at specific points in its storage area to indicate when products need to be ordered. This product is an example of
A method that changes data without significantly reducing accuracy or precision is known as
A company’s accounts payable department is trying to reduce the time between receipt and payment of invoices. If the team has just completed a flowchart of the process and identified the critical steps, which of the following tools should be used next?
Box and whisker plot
When a team consists of five black belts and eight quality engineers, how many unique meetings could be held consisting of one black belt and two quality engineers?
The primary reason that most companies implement six sigma is to
Increase customer satisfaction
For consumer products, an increase in the percentage of returned goods most likely equates to an increase in
Product not meeting specifications
Internal reject rates
Nonconforming material costs
Legal requirements specify that a bottled product must contain at least the volume printed on the label. A bottling company wants to reduce the amount of overfilled bottles. On the basis of the data below, what is the most effective strategy to accomplish this task?
First decrease the target fill volume, then decrease the target fill variation
First decrease the target fill variation, then decrease the target fill volume
In measurement system analysis, which of the following pairs of data measures is used to determine total variance?
Process variance and reproducibility
Noise system and repeatability
Measurement variance and process variance
System variance and bias
If the number of runs required for a full-factorial experiment is cost-prohibitive, which of the following experiments would have the same number of variables but fewer runs?
Completely randomized factorial
A six sigma team has been chartered to improve the way in which a company takes orders for its products. Which of the following tools should the team use to determine all of the potential pitfalls and the actual defects that occur?
Process failure mode and effects analysis
Design for six sigma
Supplier input process output control
According to Juran, anyone is a customer of a product or service if that person
Is affected by it
In regression analysis, which of the following techniques can be used to reduce the higher-order terms in the model?
Which of the following is the correct formula for DPMO?
DPO x 1,000,000
D x U x OP
Which of the following will have the most influence on consumers’ perception of quality?
Company financial performance
Service and repair policies
"Forming, Storming, Norming, and Performing” are terms that describe
Process variation reduction and improving phases
Root cause identification and corrective action
Stages of team growth
Steps of the brainstorming process
The following contingency table was developed for an organization. On the basis of this information, what is the expected number of oil changes for Station 1?
A change agent is responsible for helping the organization do which of the following?
Overcome fear of the unknown
Determine performance criteria
Identify which group is responsible for failures
The process of having a six sigma team develop a problem statement helps the team
Agree on key dates associated with completing major project phases
Achieve consensus and ownership of the process
Determine how often it should meet
Which of the following is an element of standard work?
An important aspect of data collection is that the data collector should
Determine the dispersion of the data
Know how the data are to be used
Use a control chart to analyze the data
Use a stratified sampling plan
A process produces nonconformity according to a Poisson distribution. If the mean of the nonconformities is 25, what is the SD?
Which of the following charts plots the mean of a set of values and recalculates the mean with each new value?
Xbar and s
Which of the following tools is appropriate to use with multiple criteria requiring a single option to be selected?
In order for a problem to be solved correctly, which of the following must occur?
The problem must be defined
Relevant data must be gathered
The measurement system must be validated
The process must be mapped
In comparison to a full-factorial design of experiment (DOE), a traditional, one-at-a-time approach will
Which of the following tools is used extensively in quality function deployment (QFD)?
Cause and effect diagram
Activity network diagram
A six sigma team has gathered data for a project proposal and is using the following notations. On the basis of the information above, which of the following is the criteria used to select a project?
I = initial investment
C = periodic maintenance cost
B = benefits to be accrued
Which of the following best describes a team that has members with different skills or roles from different areas within the organization?
The time for a fail-safe device to trip is thought to be a discrete uniform distribution from 1 to 5 seconds. To test this hypothesis, 100 tests are conducted with results as shown below. On the basis of these data, what are the chi square (X^2) value and the number of degrees of freedom (df)?
Which of the following methods is used to develop an exhaustive list of ideas about a subject?
Which of the following techniques would help increase process stability when the cause of variation is a cluttered work station?
Benchmarking is difficult to perform on processes that
Can be identified and researched easily
Are practiced in many different industries
Have a major impact on the success of the business
Have not been documented
Which of the following tools is commonly used in the define phase of a project?
Failure mode and effects analysis
Data collection checklist
One characteristic of attribute data is that it is always
Expensive to collect
Read from a scale of measurement
Which of the following best describes internal failure costs?
The economic costs associated with a catastrophic failure of an internal subsystem
The unavoidable quality system costs associated with the production of any product or service
The opposite of external failure costs
The costs resulting from a nonconformance detected before a product or service is provided
According to Juran, when a major quality improvement project is launched, which of the following describes the desired change in performance level?
Which of the following is an important responsibility of a project champion?
Leading the team
Documenting the overall progress of the team
Allocating resources to support the team
Coaching the team on the DMAIC process
A black belt would use non-parametric statistical methods when
Knowledge of the underlying distribution of the population is limited
The measurement scale is either nominal or ordinal
The statistical estimated is required to have higher assurance
Management requires substantial statistical analysis prior to implementing
For a normal distribution, two SDs on each side of the mean would include what percentage of the total population?
A belt is attempting to improve the soldering on a microprocessor used for a new hand-held device. As a result he should build a list of CTQ characteristics based on
Size of unit
A dairy learned through a LSS project their ice cream products could be stored at a temperature 2 degrees higher than they had historically used. Since their energy costs for ice cream storage costs $6,000 per month per degree of temperature, what was reported as the savings from this LSS project?
Producing more than is needed by the next step in the process or more than the customer needs is an example of which of the Seven Elements of Waste?
An FMEA is an important tool for a Black Belt. From the list below select the three items that best describe the benefits obtained from constructing an FMEA.
Predict where/when/how failures may occur
Estimate the severity, occurrence, and detection of detects
Helps display the procedural order of a process
Identify ways in which a process can fail to meet customer requirements
The shape of a normal distribution is impacted primarily by
This depicts a situation where the measurements are
Since 95% of normally distributed data is within +/- 2 SD of the mean, then the probability is ____% that a sample mean is within +/- SD of the population mean.
After running some statistical tests, a belt found that the p-value was greater than 0.05 which indicated
There is a difference or relationship with at least 95% confidence
There is no difference or relationship with at least 95% confidence
To reject the null hypothesis with at least 95% confidence
To run five more tests to get 95% confidence
To change the null hypothesis
A wine distributor hypothesizes that sales average $12,000 per month. A sample report of 10 months with a mean of $11,277 was selected. The SD is $3,772. Using an alpha of 5%, is the distributor statistically confident? What are the correct degrees of freedom if doing the t-test?
Which two statements are correct for the regression analysis displayed?
There are 5 factors varied in this experimental effort
Factor “B” has the highest effect on the output measured in this experiment
Three-way interaction effects have a significant effect on the output
Factor “C” has the lowest effect on the output measured in this experiment
Two-way interactions and main effects are to be pursued in further trials
Which item is the least descriptive of a properly designed control system using the Lean toolbox?
Balanced and consistent work flow across a process
Zero inventory of Work in Progress
Tidy, organized and maintained office equipment or machinery
Labeled inventory areas with control the production of material or services
A characteristic of properly executed SPC includes which of the following two answers?
Immediate response to an out of control indication
After an action to an out of control indication of violating the 3 sigma limits, the next data point is just within the 3 sigma limits, so another action was taken to further reduce the response
Plotting the response from the process at the end of the day and then analyzing for out of control conditions and taking actions if still out of control
Creation of Out of Control Action Plans before using an SPC chart in the process
90. If unsustained results are the case after project closure, what actions should be taken to recapture the benefits of the Six Sigma project?
Contact the Belt no matter where he/she is
Contact the Belt if still in the same process area
Reference the Control Plans and key finding in the final report
Check to see if the SPC charts are up-to-date
Black Belts and Master Black Belts are often tasked with conducting a closed-loop assessment of a Six Sigma methodology or project. This type of formal evaluation is done to ensure that the methodology was followed correctly and to assess its results. The following are questions that are likely asked in this assessment EXCEPT:
What new opportunities developed from this methodology?
What are the project’s pro-forma projections?
How accurate were the SWOT projections?
How were challenges and difficulties assessed?
Kaoru Ishikawa worked with other quality professionals such as WE Deming to advance quality management. Among his philosophies was for a company to put quality as its greatest priority and not short term profits. Ishikawa is also credited with the development of
To capture the voice of the customer (VOC), it is important to collect data from a large, representative sample of the target customer base. To collect this data, Six Sigma practitioners can use
Surveys and questionnaires
Design for Test is a design technique that offers a benefit of
Customer satisfaction tests
Small process variation
Richard is promised an amount equal to $10,000 in two years if he keeps his investment with his family’s restaurant. He is offered an annual interest rate of 5%. What is the Net Present Value (NPV) of Richard’s investment?
In an interrelationship diagraph, a(n) ____ and ______ relationship between two variables is depicted visually.
Project scope can be limited by the following factors EXCEPT:
Ten year financial projects
The define phase is the first phase of Six Sigma’s DMAIC cycle. If this phase is not planned for and carried out thoroughly, a project may stall and not transition to other phases successfully. Which of the following project statements is well-defined?
Encourage vendors to pay their invoices on time by threatening legal action
Improve employee morale by increasing cooperation
Reduce the reject rate of service B from 30% to 10% within 2 calendar years
Launch a nationwide CEO recruitment campaign
A Black Belt practitioner states in a project report that “we are 95% confident that the average age of consumers of product A are between 24 and 28 years.” What does a confidence interval denote?
They are 5% confidence about the average age of the population
They are 95% confidence about the average age of the sample
They are 5% confidence about the average age of the sample
They are 95% confidence about the average age of the population
According to the Central Limit Theorem, regardless of the population from which data is drawn, the sample distribution of the mean when sufficiently large is:
Skewed towards the outliers
Skewed towards the SD
A Black Belt practitioner at DuPont Industries uses a process map, SIPOC, in his project. What does the P stand for in this acronym?
A Black Belt practitioner constructs a control chart to display a process mean and its outer limits. In the chart above, what does LCL stand for?
Lower cycle length
Lower control limit
Lower cycle limit
Lower control length
Process capability (Cp) describes a process, often in a stable manufacturing environment, that leads to the production of a product that conforms to client and design specifications. An ideal process will have a Cp value:
Greater than one
Less than one
Equal to one
Within one SD of the mean
Which of the control charts must have at least 20 subgroups of observed values to judge whether a process is in control or not?
In a simple linear regression line, the rate of change of one variable is measured against another. The resulting equation is listed below. What does the term (b0) stand for?
Random error term
Known error term
A Black Belt practitioner is hired to identify a number of Critical to Price factors (CTP) in an effort to streamline and reduce costs associated with manufacturing Product A. The following are CTP factors EXCEPT:
Loan refinancing costs
A Six Sigma practitioner is likely to use advanced quantitative analysis to optimize business or industrial processes. Through process mapping and modeling, the practitioner can match the processes inherent to the project to multiple variables required by requirement or customer needs. This tool is also referred to as the:
Researchers at a car manufacturing plant are conducting a double-blind, controlled study to compare 2 brake systems. What does double-blind mean in this context?
Only blind attendants are used
Special types of blinds are used
Samples are kept confidential from customers
Samples are kept confidential from testers
According to a national grocery store chain manager, only 6% of consumers who have surveys mailed to their homes return them filled out completely. What is this type of sampling error called?
Lazy consumer error
A company wishes to compare the expected mileage of 8 different types of car tires. Which of the following statistical tests is best suited for the analysis?
Machines A and B have been showing disparate efficiency and defects per unit rates despite similar variation in quality at purchase time. If the mean squares between the two machines is 250 and the mean squares from each machine is 100, which is the value of FSTAT?
Adam is a Black Belt practitioner requested to investigate and improve the working relationship between the assembly line manager and unit project manager. Adam discovers that the unit project manager is reluctant to share information with the assembly line manager. This is an example of a(an):
Confusion of frontline roles
Richard builds a predictive model based on data collected from the highway gas mileage of a number of brand name tires. The differences between actual data points and predicted ones are referred to as:
In the manufacturing floor of Quest industries, large white posters are used to signal the need for the line manager to begin quality assurance. What is this concept referred to?
SMED is a lean manufacturing concept that is used to reduce waste in the manufacturing process. What does the E stand for?
Google is a company that encourages employee autonomy in decision making and has few hierarchical structures. In this environment, delegation of tasks are encouraged and controls over employee initiatives are loose. What type of organizational structure is this?
Which of the following steps is NOT a component of the decision making process in business or manufacturing?
Listing alternative courses of action
Evaluating the performance of the last project
Listing uncertain events
Adopting decision criteria
Sam’s Technologies, Inc produces computer chips for large medical and technological corporations. To determine the number of defective chips from each batch of inspected products, what type of chart should the managers use?
Dean’s management team is conducting measurements to quantify the manufacture of brakes for a European car company. The Cp value is calculated at greater than 1.33. Which of the following statement is NOT correct about the Cp?
It indicates that the process is capable in the long-term
It indicates that process is incapable in the short-term
It indicates that the width specifications of the process are unknown
It indicates that the width specification of the process are unknown
The following are components of Operational Excellent in manufacturing EXCEPT:
Focusing on the needs of the customers
Introducing multiple layers of middle management
Optimizing current activities
Providing employees with continuous training
An organization finds that an extra measure of security added to online transactions DID NOT reduce the incidence of identity theft. What is this management concept referred to?
Limited effectiveness model
Identity theft model
Heijunka or production-smoothing is a quality control technique designed to reduce waste in the manufacturing process. How does production-smoothing reduce waste?
Produce intermediate goods at a constant rate
Produce non-commercial goods at a constant rate
Eliminate undersold goods from the production line
Reduce undersold goods from the production line
A limitation in Six Sigma implementation is when management offers the methodology:
With the help of trained individuals
With adequate support and backing
In a few departments in the organization
For as long as is necessary to achieve results
Which one of the following model is ideal for informal communication?
To design for manufacturability, the following methods are introduced EXCEPT:
Standardization and simplification
Fewer active parts are used
Design alternatives are used
Product quality is held above simplicity
Which one of the following is an inventive methodology for problem-solving?
In George Eckes’ lecture on ten questions regarding Six Sigma, he explains that Six Sigma can be applied to all businesses except those that:
Have annual revenues less than $30 million
Do something different every day
Have been in existence for less than 1 year
Do very little in the way of manual processes
A must have requirement is:
I – You are not thrilled if the requirement is met
II – You are upset if the requirement is not met
III – you are thrilled if the requirement is met
I and II only
II and III only
Which of the following statements regarding Six Sigma team leadership is true?
A Black Belt typically creates the project charter.
A Green Belt is a full-time team lead.
A Black Belt leads the team through the DMAIC methodology.
A Green Belt leads at least four projects per year.
According to Ishikawa, how many years does it take for a quality movement to become “a way of life” in an organization?
Which of the following statements is true in Six Sigma?
An X-bar, R chart is the best choice to use when one does not have rational subgroups
Specifications should be drawn on a control chart so that bad products can be detected
Shifts, trends, and points out of control can be determined on the range portion of an X-bar, R chart
None of the above
Which of the following statements describes a reason why companies find Six Sigma valuable?
Six Sigma provides a customized improvement methodology that can be applied anywhere throughout the business.
Six Sigma fundamentally changes how a company improves.
Six Sigma makes no overall changes to the quality of the company’s products and services.
Six Sigma is a long-term approach to improvement that does not fundamentally change the way a company measures success.
Which of the following best describes the Six Sigma philosophy?
Daily activity sustaining continuous improvement in which people do rapid experiments to learn how to eliminate waste in business processes.
Regularly scheduled rapid improvement events in which the right people come together to find ways to eliminate waste in business processes and implement their solutions very quickly.
Teams working on short-to-medium-term projects, using a standardized methodology to solve problems that directly impact the bottom line, exposing the “hidden factories,” and using statistical methods to drive their decisions.
A structured management approach for the entire organization, centered on quality, based on the participation of everyone, and aimed at long-term success through customer satisfaction.
Which of the following was one of Shewhart’s contributions to the foundation of the Dix Sigma methodology and tools?
He experimented, identified, and documented the concept of the “Hawthorne effect.”
He created and used control charts, and he introduced the concept of statistical quality control.
He was the first to describe and define the Six Sigma DMAIC approach to continuous improvement.
He first promoted the idea that any process variation from a target value was a loss to society.
Which one of the following in the Juran Triology included evaluating actual quality performance?
Business process management is based on the premise of which of the following?
Each process in an organization should be optimized to its own highest level of performance to achieve company goals.
Process ownership is delegated to those actually doing the work in a process.
Achieving organization goals is often driven by the coordination of a complex system of cross-functional processes.
Managing the quality of tangible process outputs is more important than managing the quality of service delivery.
Which of the following is an example of sub-optimization of the whole?
Focusing on satisfying customer requirements will necessarily optimize the whole organization.
The best way to optimize the whole organization is to optimize its parts either one at a time or using some design of experiments approach.
The only way to optimize the whole is for all to sacrifice to work together to produce the best output (products/services) for their customers.
Organizational processes are interdependent; the requirements specific to a sub-process may not align with organization objectives.
Which of the following statements best describes how Six Sigma and lean tools are applied?
Six Sigma defines the project and quality levels and lean tools identify non-value added waste.
Lean tools are only applicable in manufacturing or transactional situations, whereas Six Sigma tools can be used throughout.
It is best to apply Six Sigma and lean separately with experts in each discipline working together on projects.
Lean tools define the project and quality levels with Six Sigma identifying non-value added waste.
There have been many quality management systems developed in the past 100 years. Of the following list, which quality management tool is the most recent addition?
Which of the following is the best reason a company will choose, all else being equal, projects that positively impact profitability?
Profit allows an organization to purchase new machinery to meet increasing demand.
High profits in the present guarantee the long-term success of a company.
Earning profits allow a company to continue to work toward the goals of management.
A company with profits can reward shareholders with quarterly dividends.
Which of the following is a reason that market share is a key concern of management?
Increasing market share brings significant additional risk to delivery of existing products and services.
Increasing market share may bring economies of scale as fixed costs do not increase in proportion to variable costs.
Decreasing market share improves the ratio of fixed costs to variable costs.
Market share is a reliable indicator of a product or service’s capability to address management’s needs.
Customer satisfaction is primarily driven by which of the following?
Delivering quality and product features that exceed those provided by competitors
Capturing customer feedback through multiple methods (eg surveys, complaints, etc)
Identifying both the stated and unstated needs of customer segments
The ability of a product or service to meet the needs of a user or purchaser
Which of the following statements best explains how Six Sigma projects are related to organization goals?
Organizational goals determine the Six Sigma projects that should be executed for all processes of the organization.
Project selection criteria should be aligned with the mission of the organization and its related quality, service, and cost goals.
Project goals are determined by the process being measured and will necessarily optimize the organization for achieving its goals.
Six Sigma projects identify process output measures that are used to establish broader goals for the organization.
Which of the following statements best describes why companies find implementing lean to be valuable?
Lean creates value for the organization by systematically identifying and eliminating waste.
Lean prevents errors or mistakes from producing waste in the production cycle.
Lean ensures that processes operate so that products or services meet or exceed customer requirements.
Lean translates customer requirements into technical specification to assure outstanding products or services are produced.
Which of the following is most important when developing a series of measurements for an organization?
Identify measurements common to other organizations for benchmarking purposes.
Establish process capability Cpk for core processes first.
Measure all processes across the organization to surface potential issues.
Align measurement priorities with goals and available resources.
The typical balanced scorecard measures organizational performance in which of the following categories?
Financial, Output, Process, Input
Strategic, Financial, Customer, Learning
Supplier, Process, Customer, Financial
Financial, Customer, Process, Learning
The theory of constraints method starts with which of the following steps?
Start by optimizing all processes in the process chain.
Start by identifying the weakest process in the process chain.
Start by adjusting the processes to match the weakest process.
Start by improving all the slow processes.
A process adds value in the value chain if it satisfies which of the following?
It is done right the first time, the customer is willing to pay for it, and it changes the thing in the process.
It is done right the first time, the customer is willing to pay for it, and it does not change the thing passing through the process.
It is done right the first time, the customer does not care, and it changes the thing in the process.
It reduces error, the customer is willing to pay for it, and it changes the thing in the process.
Perfection can be achieved in the business process by which of the following?
Conducting a one-time brainstorming session
Adding more resources in the process
Iteratively and continuously improving the process
Having a kaizen blitz session
Which process generates excess inventory?
A = C/T: 1 minute
B = C/T: 4 minutes
Which of the following activities in this process flow diagram are non-value added?
Which of the following is an example of a process that can benefit from applying value stream mapping to identify waste in space?
A production unit requires the storage of metal parts awaiting rework on the shop floor.
A metal plating process producing excessive scrap parts as a result of a poor maintenance program.
A raw materials release process requires the approvals of the purchasing, production, and warehouse managers.
A production process that requires moving parts from the warehouse to a staging area, then to the production floor for assembly.
During the production of yogurt, line operators collect samples from the milk and test its pH before immediately submitting the results to the quality control laboratory. Laboratory technicians then test the pH, protein content, and viscosity of the milk. Which of the following describes the second pH test performed by the laboratory?
Process performance indicator
Product release test
A green belt is reviewing the raw materials ordering process at a ready-to-eat food processor. She discovers that large quantities of ingredients are ordered and stored at different locations to be used at various steps. A visit to the processing floor shows congested and cluttered space. The green belt creates a value stream map for the process and discusses it with the production manager, who says that buying large quantities is necessary to ensure availability of ingredients. Which of the following should be the focus of the green belt next?
Ensure proper storage conditions of the ingredients
Identify and reduce storage space waste on the processing floor
Review the purchase agreements with the suppliers for better prices based on ordered quantities
Monitor and track expiry dates of ingredients
When using the DMADV methodology, in the final phase you should do which of the following?
Verify design performance and its ability to meet customer needs
Visit customers to ensure designs are performing as intended
Establish metrics to monitor progress of the design
Voice all concerns still remaining after the product has been designed
The optimize phase in certain DFSS roadmaps most nearly refers to the desire to do which of the following?
Test the design and record information for design improvements
Emphasize quality attributes
Link design to voice of the customer
Balance quality and cost
A methodology used to overcome the “Five Sigma Wall” is which of the following?
As-is value stream map
The seven basic quality tools
The success of a design for Six Sigma program is estimated by which of the following?
Response surface methods (RSM)
Which of the following is a direct benefit of a properly executed FMEA?
Increased safety stock
Decreased product functionality and robustness
Reduced impact of risks due to defects
Increased business process problems
The FMEA has the following RPNs. Which item should be addressed first?
Item with RPN of 75
Item with RPN of 30
Item with RPN of 156
Item with RPN of 210
Calculate the RPNs and prioritize them for taking actions.
A = 8-5-4
B = 6-2-27
C = 3-7-10
Calculate the FMEA RPN from the following data:
Probability of occurrence = 6
Severity = 4
Detection = 3
Cannot be determined with information provided.
Item A has an RPN of 120 with severity of 10, occurrence of 4, and detection of 3. Item B has an RPN of 120, with severity of 5, occurrence of 4, and detection of 6. Both items have the same ranking values and have the highest RPN. Which item will you address first?
Item A because of high severity
Item B because of high detection
Does not matter which one you pick
Ignore both because of same occurrence
When working on improving an existing problem or process, which of the following processes would you use?
An improvement team is looking into ways to improve the approval timeline of personal loans at a major bank. Loan applications have to be reviewed and processed by several internal departments. These departments in turn will request feedback and credit reports from various external parties before approving the application. Which of the following tools will help the team in formulating a high level of understanding of the process and its key players?
A process that crosses through multiple departments in a company can present challenges for improvement efforts because:
It slows the progression of normal team-building
Cross-functional teams dilute the knowledge of the group
Management support is more difficult to obtain
Two or more areas may think they own the process
A process in which a company measures its performance against that of other companies is referred to as:
What is the biggest benefit of competitive benchmarking?
It is a quick, one-time improvement activity
It focuses on the weakest link of a process
It monitors large amounts of information for problems and trends
It provides opportunities for improvement breakthroughs
Standardized national test scores for the schools in the Northwest district show mixed performance for students coming from various schools in the district. As a response to this, many of the schools in Northwest started a forum where they discuss the strengths and weaknesses of their educational methodologies, and share best practices. Which of the following best describes the approach taken by these schools?
In an effort to streamline their processes, the manager of a dry cleaning chain has developed a SIPOC diagram. Which of the following components would be considered an input to the dry cleaning process?
Detergent and cleaning instructions
The washing of the clothes
The detergent vendor
Clean clothes and invoices
A Green Belt is preparing a SIPOC for the purchasing process in a construction company. She interviews the Purchasing Manager, who is concerned that she does not receive accurate and complete purchasing information. This prevents her from processing purchase orders in a timely manner. Which of the following is correct regarding the purchasing information?
The purchasing information is an input to the purchasing process.
The purchasing information is outside the scope of SIPOC for this process.
The purchasing information is owned by the Purchasing Manager.
The purchasing information is an output of the purchasing process.
Which of the following tools is useful in providing links between process inputs and outputs?
A process improvement team is reviewing the purchasing process at a manufacturing site. The project team includes a Green Belt, the Production Manager, the Warehouse Manager, the Purchasing Manager, and three Line Operators. Which of the following is considered a process owner in this case?
The production manager
The general manager of the site
The warehouse manager
The purchasing manager
Which of the following is an example of an activity that adds to Cost of Quality?
Addition of safety relief valve to pressure vessels being produced
Refining of crude oil to produce high quality unleaded gasoline
Regular online updates to anti-virus software
An inline pH test of milk before final formulation
In order to improve its services, a passport issuing authority started accepting applications for passport renewals through local post offices in remote areas. The post office clerks accept renewal applications, collect supporting documents and fees, and forward completed applications to the passport authority for processing. Which of the following describes the passport authority’s relationship with the post offices?
The post offices are internal customers for the passport authority
The passport authority is a supplier to the post offices
The post offices are external customers for the passport authority
The passport authority is an external customer for post offices
The final external customer for an automobile manufacturer is
Buyer of the vehicle
Which of the following is the best statement describing the different between an external customer and an internal customer?
Internal customers are within an organization, and external customers receive a product or service from the organization
External customers are the purchaser, and internal customers are merchants
Internal customers are suppliers, and external customers are employees
Both internal and external customers are within the organization
Recent sales reports for an online store show steep decline in sales figures. The store sells three main categories of products: smart phones, computers and printers. The store customers are concentrated in four regions: North, South, East, and west. The store performs online surveys for its customers, the data is lumped together and no reasons for decline in sales can be seen. Which of the following tools can help this store in finding patterns in the collected feedback data?
Quality function deployment
A soda company is developing a new recipe for grape-flavored soda, and would like to get some feedback on the new product without catching the attention of its competitors. Which of the following would be an appropriate method for collecting consumer feedback?
Product promotions at major sport events
Public mail surveys
Online customer surveys
An automobile manufacturer wants to collect field intelligence to address and improve customer satisfaction, customer retention, and customer loyalty. It has 3,000 dealers nationwide. Which of the following will provide the most information at optimum cost?
Develop a statistical sample size and collect the field intelligence from dealers that are well-distributed geographically.
Request field intelligence information from all the dealers spread throughout the country.
Create detailed survey forms and send it to customers who have purchased their cars in the last year.
Use the data from publications like consumer reports and develop strategy to attract and retain customers.
A major airline is exploring the potential for expanding its operations into a Midwest city. For this purpose, it commissioned an internal team, and a team of external consultants to collect feedback from customers on their interest in the new route. Which of the following tools can ensure that both teams will collect consistent data?
Design of experiments
An electronics company is working on the design of a new smart phone. The company collected feedback data from its customers on their requirements and expectations on the new phone. Which of the following tools can help the company in integrating customer feedback into the design features of the phone?
Design of experiments
Quality function deployment
A car maker is working on the design of a new sport utility vehicle.
Which of the following tools can help the design team in gaining more understanding of their customers' needs?
Quality function deployment
Which of the following statements is true in describing the house of quality structure?
The left side of the house has the customer needs
The right side of the house has design features and technical requirements
The foundation contains customer priorities
The roof of the house contains the VOC
Which of the following represents the primary disadvantage of focusing exclusively on hard-dollar savings when assessing Six Sigma project benefits?
Requires more effort to calculate hard-dollar benefits than other benefits
Hard-dollar benefits are not considered to be tangible benefits
Hard-dollar benefit reduction does little to reduce "hidden factory" costs
Hard-dollar benefits are not a business priority
When trying to decide what's in or out of scope for a project, the most likely tool the Green Belt would use is:
A Six Sigma project team has very limited time with an executive champion in an Analyze phase review. Which of the following tools represents the best combination of quantifiable data and visual display to justify the team's selection of Critical Xs from Potential Xs?
Cause and effect diagram
When creating a detailed process map for a plastic molding process, which of the following are necessary process inputs?
The most significant factor to be considered in establishing Six Sigma project metrics is
Accuracy of measurement
Ease of measurement
A Six Sigma team is focusing on reducing cycle time for an order. Which of the following best describes consequential metrics?
Frees up storage floor space
Number of backlog orders
You are a full-time Scrum Master on an agile project team. A team member becomes sick in the middle of a sprint in which release delivery was planned. Which action is most appropriate in this situation?
Ask other team members to work extra hours
Deliver what you can within the sprint
Start development yourself for the remaining work of the sick team member
Ask sick team member to work from home
An agile project team decided to use the expert judgment project estimation technique based on three points estimate in an agile environment. Which factors should be considered?
Best Case, Worst Case and Most Likely Scenarios
Lead time, throughout and Work In Process (WIP)
A Six Sigma Manager is scheduling and tracking the progress of critical project tasks within a project. Which of the following is most likely to be the best tool he can use?
Critical Path Method
For activity X:
Optimistic Time = 2
Most Likely Time = 4
Pessimistic Time = 5
In a PERT chart, activities which may be done in parallel are indicated by which of the following?
Colored lines between activity boxes
Identical predecessor step
Square activity boxes
Dashed arrow between activity boxes
A revision in the budget is required due to development since the original budget approval. What does the Six Sigma Manager need to do first?
Conduct budget review
Conduct management review
Create budget report
Create status report
A Six Sigma Manager is handling product redesign project. Which feedback forum is best suited to address obstacles encountered by the team?
Which of the following is a benefit of project risk analysis?
Fewer project deliverables
Greater probability of project success
Project completion time delayed
Critical equipment breakdown is identified as a risk in the project at the start of the project and risk probability is 4, risk severity is 2, risk cost is $12. Which of the following risk priority number is correct?
FMEA is used to do which of the following?
Prove to management that extra resources are required
Simulate the time and cost due to failure
Indicate estimation of an activity
Get an indication of the risk involved in an existing process