Exam 1 Material

Austin Thai
Quiz by Austin Thai, updated more than 1 year ago
Austin Thai
Created by Austin Thai over 2 years ago
20
1

Description

Introduction to Microbio

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
What parts of the human body are bacteria/microbes often observed on?
Answer
  • Brain
  • Intestines
  • External urogenital parts
  • Kidneys
  • Skin
  • Upper respiratory tract
  • Internal urogenital parts

Question 2

Question
Microbiology is summed up as follows: the study of [blank_start]microscopic[blank_end] organisms that occur as [blank_start]independent[blank_end] units. These organisms are [blank_start]rapidly reproducing[blank_end] units that, in comparison to plants and animals, are [blank_start]comparatively less complex[blank_end]. Finally, they are [blank_start]omnipresent[blank_end] and aplenty.
Answer
  • microscopic
  • independent
  • rapidly reproducing
  • comparatively less complex
  • omnipresent

Question 3

Question
The external urogenital parts of the human body are the most sterile areas.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 4

Question
What are some benefits our bodies provide for microbes in terms of reproduction and colonization?
Answer
  • Provides a source of nutrients, including iron & oxygen
  • Prevents microbes from being dislocated easily by providing attachment sites
  • The moist environment is hospitable for them
  • All choices are correct

Question 5

Question
What are the few examples of Vitamin K-deficient individuals that do not receive said vitamin from their intestinal microbes?
Answer
  • Newborns
  • Hemophiliacs
  • People with major portion of intestines removed
  • People undergoing long-term antibiotic treatment

Question 6

Question
[blank_start]Streptococcus pneumoniae[blank_end] is the name of the bacteria that causes pneumonia, as well as sepsis and even meningitis.
Answer
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae

Question 7

Question
Both resident and transient microflora are found in the GI system, skin, and upper respiratory tract of the human body.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 8

Question
Prokaryotic cells are simple; their genetic material is [blank_start]not enclosed[blank_end], they contain [blank_start]non-membranous organelles[blank_end], their cell walls are [blank_start]made of peptidoglycan[blank_end], and they undergo cell division via [blank_start]binary fission[blank_end]. Eukaryotic cells are complex; their genetic material is [blank_start]enclosed[blank_end], they contain [blank_start]non-membranous and membranous organelles[blank_end], their cell walls are [blank_start]not made of peptidoglycan[blank_end], and they undergo cell division via [blank_start]mitosis[blank_end].
Answer
  • not enclosed
  • non-membranous organelles
  • made of peptidoglycan
  • binary fission
  • enclosed
  • non-membranous and membranous organelles
  • mitosis
  • not made of peptidoglycan

Question 9

Question
Which of the following prion-related diseases is NOT associated with animals?
Answer
  • Scrapie
  • Creuzfeldt disease
  • B.S.E. (bovine spongiform encephalitis)
  • Chronic wasting disease

Question 10

Question
[blank_start]Trichomonas vaginalis[blank_end] is a protozoan parasite that is spread via sexual contact, and found more often in women than men.
Answer
  • Trichomonas vaginalis

Question 11

Question
Bacteria have a relatively simple structure. This promotes a rapid growth rate due to their versatile metabolic processes, which leads to:
Answer
  • Greater efficiency and impact through its increased numbers and reliance on each other
  • Promotes a broader distribution in most environments, even extreme ones
  • Can easily spread their genetic material to other organisms
  • Accelerates its rate of evolution
  • Its effects are rapidly incorporated into the population, affecting the local environment

Question 12

Question
Archaea have some similarities and differences with bacteria. Because they derive from the [blank_start]prokaryotic[blank_end] division, they are [blank_start]non-pathogenic[blank_end] and absorb nutrients. They may have a cell wall that contain [blank_start]pseudopeptidoglycan[blank_end], and can inhabit [blank_start]extreme[blank_end] environments.
Answer
  • non-pathogenic
  • pathogenic
  • pseudopeptidoglycan
  • peptidoglycan
  • extreme
  • non-extreme
  • prokaryotic
  • eukaryotic
  • protozoan

Question 13

Question
There are many types of archaea that can inhabit extreme environments, like bacteria can. One example are [blank_start]methanogens[blank_end], which, as the name indicates, thrive in areas filled with methane. Such locations include landfills and cows' intestines or dung. Another type are categorized as [blank_start]halophiles[blank_end], due to their ability to flourish in salty environments. This includes places like the Dead Sea. [blank_start]Thermophiles[blank_end] are specimens that thrive in areas of high temperature. This can include volcanoes, nuclear plants, and hydro-thermal vents in the ocean floor.
Answer
  • Thermophiles
  • halophiles
  • methanogens

Question 14

Question
Bordetella pertussis is a common example of a [blank_start]coccobacillus[blank_end]. It causes whooping cough.
Answer
  • coccobacillus

Question 15

Question
[blank_start]Corynebacterium diphteriae[blank_end] is a type of bacteria that infects the nose and throat, unless vaccinated properly. In addition, its unique feature is that it is [blank_start]pleomorphic[blank_end].
Answer
  • Corynebacterium diphteriae
  • pleomorphic

Question 16

Question
This bacteria caused a major crisis due to its "attacks" in the U.S. in the early 2000s. It is known as [blank_start]Bacillus anthracis[blank_end].
Answer
  • Bacillus anthracis

Question 17

Question
Cocci cells are arranged in several ways. The simplest form is known as [blank_start]diplococci[blank_end], where 2 cells are attached after binary fission. This form can be expanded upon and arranged into a long chain, becoming [blank_start]streptococci[blank_end]. Other cocci arrangements can be divided into multiple planes. Some can be [blank_start]perpendicular[blank_end] to each other while attached ([blank_start]tetrads[blank_end]), whereas others are divided into 3 planes like a cuboid ([blank_start]sarcinae[blank_end]). The last arrangement, known as [blank_start]staphylococci[blank_end], is the most varied; it can divide into whichever planes at random, and are [blank_start]clustered[blank_end] in no particular order.
Answer
  • diplococci
  • streptococci
  • tetrads
  • staphylococci
  • sarcinae
  • perpendicular
  • clustered

Question 18

Question
An example of a [blank_start]diplococci[blank_end] bacteria is Neisseria gonorrhoea. An interesting fact about this bacteria: it's the only Gram negative type that can thrive in the bladder.
Answer
  • diplococci

Question 19

Question
Another example of a streptococci bacteria is [blank_start]Streptococcus pyogenes[blank_end], which causes strep throat.
Answer
  • Streptococcus pyogenes

Question 20

Question
Bacterial cells act independently of each other, despite how they are arranged and attached.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 21

Question
Bacilli and spiral bacteria arrangements are similar to cocci, in that they all can be grouped together.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 22

Question
Label the following prokaryotic morphology types below.
Image:
Morphology
Answer
  • cocci
  • coccobacillus
  • star
  • vibrio
  • bacillus
  • pleomorphic
  • spirochete
  • spirillum

Question 23

Question
The difference between Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli lies in the unique [blank_start]shape[blank_end] of their structures. Escherichia coli is [blank_start]rod-shaped[blank_end] (like a [blank_start]bacillus[blank_end]), whereas Vibrio cholerae are shaped like [blank_start]slightly curved rods[blank_end].
Answer
  • shape
  • bacillus
  • slightly curved rods
  • rod-shaped

Question 24

Question
What makes the Mycoplasma sps. so unique from its brethren?
Answer
  • Less resistance; more prone to antibiotics
  • Lacks a cell wall
  • Has a more passive mode of infection
  • Does not group together with fellow daughter cells

Question 25

Question
Identify 2 non-membranous organelles of prokaryotic organisms.
Answer
  • Ribosomes
  • Cytoskeleton
  • Centrioles
  • Mitochondria
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Smooth E.R.

Question 26

Question
Spindle fibers participate in the process of binary fission when bacteria cells divide.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 27

Question
Pick all compounds that make up cell walls (if any) of the eukaryotic cells.
Answer
  • Chitin
  • Cellulose
  • Peptidoglycan
  • Pseudopeptidoglycan
  • None of these
  • Capsid

Question 28

Question
The pathogen for Creutzfeldt-Jakob's disease is a [blank_start]prion[blank_end], and the agent's uniqueness is that it [blank_start]lacks any genetic material[blank_end].
Answer
  • prion
  • lacks any genetic material

Question 29

Question
The pathogen Treponema pallidum, based on its morphology, belongs to the [blank_start]spirochete[blank_end] group.
Answer
  • spirochete

Question 30

Question
Identify the correct match(es) from the following:
Answer
  • chitin :::: algal cell wall
  • Mycoplasma :::: smallest living virus
  • pertussis :::: Bordetella sps.
  • diplococci :::: E. coli
  • all are correctly matched

Question 31

Question
Genetics play an important role as a determinant of bacterial shape.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 32

Question
Centrioles are present in Staphylococcus sps.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 33

Question
Pleomorphism refers to:
Answer
  • the ability of microbes to alter their size or shape in response to environmental conditions
  • the hybrid shapes & sizes microbes develop into
  • a condition that nullifies the microbes' ability to adapt to their surroundings
  • none of the answers listed

Question 34

Question
Identify the key features and factoids about Borrelia burgdorferi:
Answer
  • spirochete
  • spirillum
  • AKA syphilis
  • AKA Lyme disease
  • transmitted via ingestion
  • transmitted via bite/saliva
  • main symptom = rash
  • main symptom = cough

Question 35

Question
Bacterial cells divide by:
Answer
  • sexual reproduction
  • mitosis
  • meiosis
  • binary fission

Question 36

Question
Pathogen for Kuru's disease belongs to:
Answer
  • bacteria
  • viruses
  • archaea
  • prions

Question 37

Question
Prokaryotic cells normally have __________ chromosomes
Answer
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 0

Question 38

Question
There is less energy usage during bacterial cell division.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 39

Question
Methanobacterium sps. belongs to the Archae group
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 40

Question
Palisade arrangement is a feature associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae cells
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 41

Question
Bacterial cells have cytoskeleton as one of the non-membranous organelles.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 42

Question
Viruses belong to the organisms division of the microbial world
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 43

Question
E. coli has pseudopeptidoglycan in its cell wall structure.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 44

Question
Centrioles are the organelles found in Halobacterium sps.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 45

Question
Streptococcus sps. divides in a random plane of division.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 46

Question
Anthrax is able to enter the human body via [blank_start]multiple[blank_end] portal(s) of entry.
Answer
  • multiple
  • a singular
  • two

Question 47

Question
Which of the following routes does anthrax enter the body?
Answer
  • parenteral
  • conjunctiva and eye
  • ingestion
  • subcutaneous

Question 48

Question
Clostridium tetani infects directly into the bloodstream.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 49

Question
What are the 5 main portals of entry that pathogens use to enter and infect a host?
Answer
  • Skin
  • Mucous membrane
  • Conjunctiva and eye
  • Ingestion
  • Placenta
  • Parenteral route
  • Respiratory
  • Non-invasive
  • Absorption

Question 50

Question
There are 4 requirements in order for the pathogen to successfully infect a host. First, it must enter via a [blank_start]portal of entry[blank_end]. Next, it must establish itself via [blank_start]adherence[blank_end], colonization, and [blank_start]invasion[blank_end]. Thirdly, it must be able to [blank_start]defeat host defense cells[blank_end] to maintain establishment. Finally, it will [blank_start]damage[blank_end] the host, including its cells + tissue, in order to spur on further reproduction and transmission to other areas.
Answer
  • portal of entry
  • adherence
  • invasion
  • defeat host defense cells
  • damage

Question 51

Question
Which one of these portals of entry is the preferred entry for the majority of pathogens?
Answer
  • Conjunctiva and eye
  • Skin
  • Mucous membrane
  • Placenta

Question 52

Question
Which of these options is NOT a reason why the eye is a preferred portal of entry for most pathogens?
Answer
  • highly vascularized
  • non-keratinized
  • blood-brain barrier prevents defense cells from entering the brain
  • moist environment is very hospitable for pathogens

Question 53

Question
List the pathogens that can cross the placenta barrier to infect the host:
Answer
  • CMV
  • Toxoplasma sps.
  • Mycoplasma sps.
  • rubella
  • mumps
  • syphilis
  • herpes

Question 54

Question
Vibrio cholerae contains 2 circular chromosomes in its cell.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 55

Question
Bacteria obtain nutrients via parasitic infection of its environment/host.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 56

Question
Protozoa members in the Eukaryote division are found to be both uni and multicellular.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 57

Question
Parasitic larvae [blank_start]burrow[blank_end] through the skin to directly infect a host. Fungi, on the other hand, [blank_start]secretes keratinase[blank_end] in order to indirectly infect a host.
Answer
  • secrete keratinase
  • burrow

Question 58

Question
Zika virus can infect a host solely via mosquito bites.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 59

Question
What are some benefits bacteria provide for us human hosts in this mutual relationship?
Answer
  • provides key vitamins (i.e. Vitamin K)
  • out-competes other invasive pathogens from settling in our body
  • guides our immune system
  • aids in digestion
  • provides moisture for smoother GI function
  • reduces energy usage for metabolism

Question 60

Question
Enveloped viruses (i.e. HIV, herpes) enter via ingestion into the GI system.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 61

Question
Which one of these is NOT considered a portal of entry via mucous membranes?
Answer
  • respiratory
  • urogenital
  • GI system
  • cutaneous

Question 62

Question
Bacteria, archaea, and fungi all absorb nutrients from their surroundings to feed themselves.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 63

Question
The morphology of Micrococcus sps. is what?
Answer
  • diplococci
  • tetrad
  • sarcinae
  • staphylococci

Question 64

Question
Algae obtain nutrients via [blank_start]synthesizing sugar[blank_end]
Answer
  • synthesizing sugar
  • absorbing nutrients in its surroundings
  • ingestion of nutrients

Question 65

Question
What is one route pathogens can use to penetrate the skin as a portal of entry for infection?
Answer
  • hair follicles
  • spores
  • sweat glands

Question 66

Question
What is one trait that distinguishes viroids from the other infectious agents?
Answer
  • lacks any genetic material
  • contains no protein
  • contains DNA only
  • can cause diseases in humans

Question 67

Question
Obligate intracellular parasites (OIP; such as chlamydia) cannot reproduce outside the host's cells.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 68

Question
Protozoa acquire nutrients via ingestion of organic particles.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 69

Question
What are some unique features of Fungi?
Answer
  • natural decomposers
  • cell wall made of chitin
  • cell wall made of cellulose
  • absorbs nutrients from its surroundings
  • unicellular only
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