Limbic System & Limbic System Neurotransmitters

Melanie Grynsztejn
Quiz by Melanie Grynsztejn, updated more than 1 year ago
Melanie Grynsztejn
Created by Melanie Grynsztejn over 3 years ago
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Description

Quiz on Limbic System & Limbic System Neurotransmitters, created by Melanie Grynsztejn on 02/11/2018.

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
"Hippo Hat" HIPPO - hippocampus H - hypothalamus A - Amygdala T - thalamus
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 2

Question
The purpose of the limbic system is
Answer
  • process sensory information
  • it attaches emotional significance to our perceptions and drives our actions
  • allows is to act (move) in the world

Question 3

Question
Feelings underlying love, altruism, morals, as well as anger, resentment, jealousy and greed are all generated by the limbic system.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 4

Question
The limbic system is an [blank_start]integrative[blank_end] system that utilizes information from and has complex connections with, many different subsystems (motor, sensory, and autonomic systems).
Answer
  • integrative
  • separate
  • equilizing

Question 5

Question
The following are functions of the limbic system
Answer
  • Integrate all experiences
  • Attaches emotional value & drive responses to them
  • Consolidates emotional experiences into memories
  • Innervates organ systems and muscles that are not under voluntary control
  • Controls the release of hormones from the pituitary gland

Question 6

Question
Which functions are the limbic system involved in?
Answer
  • learning
  • sensory
  • memory
  • motor movement
  • emotion
  • executive function
  • homeostatic control

Question 7

Question
limbic lobe was identified as consisting of a ring-like area of cortex on the medial surface of each cerebral hemisphere, including the cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus and septal cortex – all three of which are interconnected by a white matter pathway called the [blank_start]cingulum[blank_end]
Answer
  • cingulum
  • striatum
  • mesolimbic pathway

Question 8

Question
The Papez Circuit includes the following areas of the brain:
Answer
  • Olfactory tracts & cortex
  • Hippocampus
  • Amygdala
  • Hypothalamic nuclei (e.g. mammillary bodies)
  • Thalamic nuclei (anterior nucleus)
  • Orbitofrontal & dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
  • Suprachiasmatic nucleus

Question 9

Answer
  • Hypothalamus
  • Hippocampus
  • Prefrontal cortex
  • Amygdala
  • Thalamus
  • Hippocampu
  • Hippocampus
  • Thalamus
  • Amygdala
  • Hippocampus
  • Olfactory bulb
  • Amygdala

Question 10

Question
The Papez Circuit: Hippocampus connects to [blank_start]Mammillary Bodes (Hypothalamus)[blank_end] through the fornix Mammillary Bodes (Hypothalamus) connect to the [blank_start]Anterior nuclei of the thalamus[blank_end] through the mammilo-thalmic tract Anterior nucli of the thalamus connect to [blank_start]cingulate gyrus[blank_end] through internal capsule Cingulate gyrus connects to [blank_start]hippocampus[blank_end] through cingulum
Answer
  • Mammillary Bodies (Hypothalamus)
  • Anterior nuclei of the thalamus
  • cingulate gyrus
  • hippocampus

Question 11

Question
In the Papez circuit, the hippocampus is connected to the Mamillary Bodies (Hypothalamus) by the
Answer
  • mammillo-thalamic tract
  • fornix
  • internal capsule
  • cingulum

Question 12

Question
In the Papez Circuit, the Mammillary Bodies (hypothalamus) are connected to the anterior nuclei of the thalamus by the
Answer
  • fornix
  • mammillo-thalamic tract
  • internal capsule
  • cingulum

Question 13

Question
In the Papez Circuit, the anterior nuclei of the thalamus is connected to the cingulate gyrus by the
Answer
  • fornix
  • mammillo-thalamic tract
  • internal capsule
  • cingulum

Question 14

Question
In the Papez Circuit, the cingulate gyrus is connected to the hippocampus by the
Answer
  • fornix
  • mammillo-thalamic tract
  • internal capsule
  • cingulum

Question 15

Question
The functions of the limbic system can be divided into four basic categories:
Answer
  • Olfaction
  • Homeostatic functions (autonomic & neuroendocrine)
  • Learning & memory
  • Emotions & Drives
  • Execution of movement

Question 16

Question
One of the things that makes the olfactory system unique is that smells evoke strong feelings, emotionally enhance our experiences, and facilitate the establishment of memories (all key limbic system functions).
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 17

Question
Olfactory cortex includes a part of the orbitofrontal cortex and the medial aspect of the temporal lobe known as the pyriform cortex that includes a medial bulge known as the uncus.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 18

Question
The uncus is of clinical significance because:
Answer
  • Seizures can originate in this area (“uncinate fits”) and manifest as hallucinations of disagreeable odors
  • pathways that course through the uncus, and facilitate communication between specific hypothalamic nuclei and between the hypothalamus and many other brain regions
  • Lesions in the hemispheres of the brain can result in swelling (or edema), which can subsequently cause herniation of the uncus into the upper brainstem with serious consequences (“uncal herniation”)

Question 19

Question
The limbic system modulates and, at times, directly activates the hypothalamus.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 20

Question
[blank_start]Explicit[blank_end] memory refers to the conscious recollection of facts [blank_start]Implicit[blank_end] memory refers to the subconscious learning of skills, habits or behaviors
Answer
  • Explicit
  • Implicit
  • Explicit
  • Implicit

Question 21

Question
Explicit memory includes
Answer
  • semantic memory (facts and general knowledge)
  • Procedural memory (motor & cognitive skills)
  • Episodic memory (personally experienced events)
  • Priming (enhanced identification of objects and words)

Question 22

Question
The main structure in the limbic system that is important for establishing explicit memories is the
Answer
  • amygdala
  • thalamus
  • hippocampus
  • hypothalamus

Question 23

Question
Implicit memory refers to the subconscious learning of skills, habits or behaviors (e.g., how to ride a bike), and occurs through circuits of the
Answer
  • Hippocampus
  • Extrapyramidal system
  • Thalamus
  • Cerebellum

Question 24

Question
Severe memory deficit is usually observed only when the damage is [blank_start]bilateral[blank_end]
Answer
  • bilateral
  • unilateral

Question 25

Question
When lesions/damage create issues in the consolidation process of placing short-term memories into long-term storage this is referred to as [blank_start]anterograde[blank_end] amnesia while [blank_start]retrograde[blank_end] amnesia refers to the loss of previously formed long-term memories.
Answer
  • anterograde
  • retrograde
  • anterograde
  • retrograde

Question 26

Question
What brain structure is a major target in Alzheimer's Disease
Answer
  • hypothalamus
  • hippocampus
  • amygdala
  • thalamus

Question 27

Question
What nutritional deficiency causes Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome-
Answer
  • Riboflavin
  • Folate
  • Thiamine
  • Niacin

Question 28

Question
Thiamine deficiency in Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome, which is usually caused by ETOH can be manifested in
Answer
  • inability to form memories
  • seizures
  • confabulation of facts
  • aggression

Question 29

Question
Prefrontal cortex: [blank_start]Dorsolateral[blank_end] = executive, problem solving and analyzing [blank_start]Ventomedial[blank_end] = role in emotional processing [blank_start]Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)[blank_end] = regulate impulses, compulsions, and drives [blank_start]Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)[blank_end] = selective attention, emotions, depression, and anxiety
Answer
  • Dorsolateral
  • Ventomedial
  • Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)
  • Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)
  • Ventomedial
  • Dorsolateral
  • Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)
  • Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)
  • Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)
  • Dorsolateral
  • Ventomedial
  • Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)
  • Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)
  • Dorsolateral
  • Ventomedial
  • Orbitofrona

Question 30

Question
In the limbic system, the ________is responsible for constructing the perceptions of emotional feelings, making judgements about our experiences, and determining actions in response to the emotional value we place on our experiences
Answer
  • hypothalamus
  • amygdala
  • prefrontal cortex
  • hippocampus

Question 31

Question
The ________, which is part of the prefrontal cortex, is involved in impulse control, moral judgement, abstracting the rules of social interaction, and the ability to appreciate the consequences of one's actions
Answer
  • dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
  • orbitofrontal cortex
  • ventomedial prefrontal cortex
  • anterior cingulate cortex

Question 32

Question
The _________ is involved primarily in executive functions, contributing to our ability to prioritize and carry out actions, and adapt to change.
Answer
  • orbitofrontal cortex
  • ventomedial prefrontal cortex
  • dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
  • anterior cingulate cortex

Question 33

Question
[blank_start]Mood[blank_end] is an internal subjective state that fluctuates in response to physiological and environmental circumstances [blank_start]Temperament[blank_end] refers to the relatively stable characteristics and personality traits of individuals and how they engage with the world throughout their lifetime
Answer
  • Mood
  • Temperament
  • Mood
  • Temperament

Question 34

Question
When there is dysfunction of the limbic system circuits that give rise to mood and temperament, there can be a significant change in how an individual reacts in the world and with others.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 35

Question
The endogenous reward system involves which structures in the brain
Answer
  • Prefrontal cortex
  • Ventral tegmental area (VTA)
  • Nucleus accumbens
  • Amygdala

Question 36

Question
Ventral tegmental area (VTA) is a tiny group of dopaminergic (releasing or involving dopamine as a neurotransmitter) neurons located in the midbrain that gives rise to two major projections or pathways:
Answer
  • Fornix
  • Cingulum "association" pathway
  • Mesolimbic
  • Mesocortical

Question 37

Question
Mesolimbic:
Answer
  • Projection is to the nucleus accumbens, and the amygdala.
  • projection is to the cortex, predominantly the prefrontal cortex
  • Involved in pleasure and reward; stimulation of this pathway results in a sense of pleasure
  • involved in motivational behavior; tied to pleasure and reward

Question 38

Question
Mesocortical pathway:
Answer
  • Projection is to the nucleus accumbens and the amygdala.
  • Projection is to the cortex, predominantly the prefrontal cortex
  • Involved in pleasure and reward; stimulation of this pathway results in a sense of pleasure
  • involved in motivational behavior; tied to pleasure and reward.

Question 39

Question
VTA and its projections to the nucleus accumbens is involved in virtually every type of addiction
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 40

Question
The ability to attach negative emotions to experiences, which then drive behavior, is what underlies survivability for all animals, including humans.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 41

Question
The major structure of the brain that pairs experience with emotion, including fear, is the __________, a subcortical nuclear complex located in the temporal lobe.
Answer
  • hippocampus
  • hypothalamus
  • thalamus
  • amygdala

Question 42

Question
Functions of the amygdala include:
Answer
  • Determines emotional significance of sensory input
  • Coordinates a multisystem response to sensory input, especially that which requires immediate attention, such as potential threats
  • Facilitates the establishment of emotional memory
  • Influences sexual behavior and food & water intake.
  • release hormones to the anterior lobe by way of a special capillary bed

Question 43

Question
Kluver-Bucy Syndrome is a clinical condition where the removal of the bilateral temporal lobes (including the amygdala) leads to:
Answer
  • mild retrograde and severe anterograde amnesia;
  • orthostatic hypotension
  • hypersexual, docile and unresponsive to innate threats, and developed a voracious appetite.
  • poikilothermia, a condition in which body temperature varies with the environment.

Question 44

Question
The amygdala has widespread and often reciprocal connections to many areas of the brain, including the neocortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, nuclei of the extrapyramidal motor system, and thalamus.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 45

Question
Amygdala receives direct projections from sensory relay nuclei of the [blank_start]thalamus[blank_end], bypassing the [blank_start]cortex,[blank_end] so that emotional significance can be paired with incoming sensory information even before there is a conscious perception of what the stimulus actually is.
Answer
  • thalamus
  • cortex,

Question 46

Question
The amygdala is involved in quickly reacting to acute threatening situations by:
Answer
  • Receiving direct projections from sensory relay nuclei of the thalamus
  • Rapidly judging experiences and directing an immediate behavioral response
  • Activating the region of the hypothalamus involved in control of the SNS
  • Activating the PNS after the threat is over, to bring about a state of rest and relaxation

Question 47

Question
If the amygdala and associated limbic system circuits are continuously responding to perceptually stressful stimuli, such as in the setting of chronic stress, there can be negative consequences, including dysfunction of the immune system, the cardiovascular system, and parts of the nervous system.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 48

Question
Each of the nuclei in the limbic system uses a specific neurotransmitter to communicate with other parts of the brain.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 49

Question
[blank_start]Glutamate[blank_end] = turns brain on; builds memory; regulates awareness, movement, sensation & mood [blank_start]GABA[blank_end] - turns brain off; involved in sleep, sedation, relaxation, reducing anxiety & decreasing muscle tension [blank_start]Endocannabinoids[blank_end] = regulate pain, appetite [blank_start]Serotonin[blank_end] = regulate mood, anxiety, appetite, sleep cycle [blank_start]Noradrenaline[blank_end] = feelings of alertness, attention, concentration, raising BP, lifts mood, can cause anxiety [blank_start]Dopamine[blank_end] = creates feelings of motivation and drive, liking, attention, pleasure & enjoyment in food [blank_start]Acetylcholine[blank_end] = regulates sleep cycle and alertness and builds memory
Answer
  • Glutamate
  • GABA
  • Endocannabinoids
  • Serotonin
  • Noradrenaline
  • Dopamine
  • Acetylcholine
  • GABA
  • Glutamate
  • Endocannabinoids
  • Serotonin
  • Noradrenaline
  • Dopamine
  • Acetylcholine
  • Endocannabinoids
  • Glutamate
  • GABA
  • Serotonin
  • Noradrenaline
  • Dopamine
  • Acetylcholine
  • Serotonin
  • Glutamate
  • GABA
  • Endocannabinoids
  • Noradrenaline
  • Dopamine
  • Acetylchonie
  • Noradrenaline
  • Glutamate
  • GABA
  • Endocannabinoids
  • Serotonin
  • Dopamine
  • Acetylcholine
  • Dopamine
  • Glutamate
  • GABA
  • Endocannabinoids
  • Serotonin
  • Noradrenaline
  • Acetyhlcholine
  • Acetylcholine
  • Glutamate
  • GABA
  • Endocannabinoids
  • Serotonin
  • Noradrenaline
  • Dopamine

Question 50

Question
Within the CNS, there are high concentrations of cholinergic neurons in
Answer
  • midbrain reticular formation (which facilitates wakefulness)
  • basal forebrain (crucial role in establishment of memory)
  • Raphe nucei
  • Nucleus locus coeruleus

Question 51

Question
Acetylcholine acts on target neurons in the _________ and the __________, strengthening the neural circuits that are involved in memory formation.
Answer
  • prefrontal cortex
  • cerebral cortex
  • hippocampus
  • orbitocingulate cortex

Question 52

Question
Serotonin (5–HT) is a monoamine (specifically, an indoleamine) that is produced by [blank_start]raphe[blank_end] nuclei, small groups of serotonergic neurons in the reticular formation extending from the medulla to the midbrain
Answer
  • raphe

Question 53

Question
Dopamine is a monoamine (specifically, a catecholamine) that is produced by several different nuclear groups in the brain. One of these nuclear groups – the [blank_start]ventral tegmental area[blank_end] – is located in the midbrain, and has major connections to limbic system structures via the mesolimbic and mesocortical pathways
Answer
  • ventral tegmental area

Question 54

Question
[blank_start]Mesolimbic pathway[blank_end] (VTA nucleus accumbens and other limbic system structures such as the amygdala) – involved in pleasure and reward; stimulation of this pathway results in a sense of pleasure. [blank_start]Mesocortical pathway[blank_end] (VTA prefrontal cortex) – involved in motivational behavior; tied to pleasure and reward.
Answer
  • Mesolimbic pathway
  • Mesocortical pathway
  • Mesolimbic pathway
  • Mesocortical pathway

Question 55

Question
Dopamine (via the mesolimbic & mesocortical pathways) plays a major role in addiction. Any drug that elicits the subjective sense of pleasure or joy acts on these dopaminergic pathways (i.e., the endogenous reward system); and such drugs can be physiologically and/or psychologically addicting.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 56

Question
Norepinephrine is a monoamine (specifically, a catecholamine) that, in the CNS, is produced by the ____________, a tiny, paired nucleus that lies dorsolaterally in the pontine reticular formation.
Answer
  • ventral tegmental area (VTA)
  • raphe nuclei
  • nucleus locus coeruleus
  • nucleus accumbens

Question 57

Question
Monoamine neurotransmitters modulate our emotional response to the world and our mood. If the levels of the monoamines are increased, there is a feeling of well-being. If levels are decreased, the result can be depression.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 58

Question
The standard classes of medications used to treat depression modulate monoamine neurotransmitters. These drugs might facilitate the transmission of monoamine synaptic connections by:
Answer
  • facilitate the release of neurotransmitters at the presynaptic terminal
  • block reuptake of neurotransmitters into the presynaptic terminal
  • prevent the breakdown of the neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft
  • facilitate the reuptake of neurotransmitters into the presynaptic terminal

Question 59

Question
The four categories of "antidepressant" medications are:
Answer
  • Tricyclic antidepressants
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
  • Selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
  • Designer antidepressants – drugs specifically designed to affect one or more neurotransmitters at sites that are not targeted by TCAs, MAOIs or SSRIs
  • Going to dinner and drag on a Friday night

Question 60

Question
Tricyclic antidepressants work by
Answer
  • inhibiting monoamine oxidase is the enzyme that breaks down monoamine neurotransmitters therby increasing the availability of dopamine, serotonin and dopamine in the synaptic cleft
  • inhibiting the reuptake of monoamine neurotransmitters (particularly serotonin and norepinephrine), thereby increasing the concentration and availability of the monoamines to bind postsynaptic receptors.

Question 61

Question
Glutamate is the [blank_start]most[blank_end] used neurotransmitter in the nervous system and is [blank_start]always[blank_end] thought to cause an excitatory postsynaptic response.
Answer
  • most
  • least
  • always
  • never

Question 62

Question
Neurons that release opioids are also involved in limbic system circuits; in fact, the highest density of opioid receptors is in limbic system structures.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 63

Question
Papez Circuit
Answer
  • Hippcampus
  • Mamillary Bodies
  • Fornix
  • Mammillo-thalamic tract
  • Anterior nuclei of the thalamus
  • Internal capsule
  • Cingulate gyrus
  • Cingulum
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