Neuropsych assessment

Jennifer Khouw
Quiz by , created about 1 year ago

Lecture 2

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Jennifer Khouw
Created by Jennifer Khouw about 1 year ago
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Question 1

Question
Clinical neuropsychological applies to:
Answer
  • Humans only
  • Humans and all primates
  • Humans and mammals
  • Humans and chimpanzees

Question 2

Question
Clinical neuropsychological assessment means interpreting test performance within the context of:
Answer
  • Clinical history
  • Psychological interview
  • Behavioural observations
  • Animal behaviour models
  • Response to neuropharmacology

Question 3

Question
Clinical neuropsychology evolved out of which parent disciplines?
Answer
  • Behavioural neurology
  • Clinical psychology
  • Socio-cognitive psychology
  • Behavioural neuropharmacology
  • Cognitive neuroscience

Question 4

Question
What can make an assessment neuropsychological?
Answer
  • The questions that prompted it
  • The main issues
  • The findings
  • The inferences
  • Being assigned to a neuropsychologist
  • Recommendation from primary physician

Question 5

Question
What is the opposite of localisation?
Answer
  • Lateralisation
  • Equipotentialism
  • Spatiality

Question 6

Question
Which perspective says that the size of a lesion is important but its location is not?
Answer
  • Equipotentialism
  • Spatiality
  • Localisation
  • Lateralisation

Question 7

Question
Which perspective says that the location of the lesion is more important than the size?
Answer
  • Localisation
  • Equipotentialism
  • Lateralisation
  • Spatiality

Question 8

Question
Who said that brain damage needs to be considered measurable and multi-dimensional?
Answer
  • Lezak (2012)
  • Farah & Gillihan (2012)
  • Costa & McCrae (1990)
  • Lewisham (2016)

Question 9

Question
Which of the following affects the behavioural consequences of a lesion?
Answer
  • Nature
  • Extent
  • Location
  • Duration
  • Cause

Question 10

Question
Strategic Lacunar infarcts can have a bigger impact than large infarcts. Which perspective does this support?
Answer
  • Equipotentialism
  • Localisation
  • Lateralisation
  • Spatiality

Question 11

Question
List the most common causes of acquired neuropsychological disorders, from most to least common: 1. [blank_start]Traumatic Brain Injury[blank_end] 2. [blank_start]Stroke[blank_end] 3. [blank_start]Dementia[blank_end]
Answer
  • Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Stroke
  • Dementia
  • Substance Abuse
  • Oxygen deprivation
  • Infections

Question 12

Question
Ischaemic = ___________; haemorrhagic= __________
Answer
  • Blockage; bleed
  • Bleed; blockage
  • Rupture; constriction
  • Constriction; rupture

Question 13

Question
What is true of TBI?
Answer
  • Least common cause of acquired neuropsychological disorders
  • Happens when a mechanical force meets the head
  • Causes neurons to stretch/shear
  • Causes glia to stretch/shear
  • Rarely due to accidents

Question 14

Question
Which of the following are causes of acquired neuropsychological disorders?
Answer
  • Substance Abuse
  • Oxygen Deprivation
  • Herpes Simplex
  • HIV/AIDS
  • Invasive brain tumours
  • HPV
  • Non-invasive brain tumours
  • Schizophrenia

Question 15

Question
Neuropsychological assessment is the most effective tool for diagnosing:
Answer
  • Mild TBI
  • Early-onset dementia
  • Late-onset dementia
  • Dementia with Lewy Bodies
  • Ischaemic stroke
  • Haemorrhagic stroke

Question 16

Question
Some brain disorders exclusively affect the left or right hemisphere. What is the name of this concept?
Answer
  • Lateralisation
  • Localisation
  • Locationalisation
  • Linearitisation

Question 17

Question
Which brain disorders commonly lateralise?
Answer
  • Stroke
  • Focal gunshot wound
  • Vascular dementia
  • Ischaemic stroke
  • Herpes Simplex

Question 18

Question
Damage to the dominant hemisphere means the patient will most likely:
Answer
  • Perform worse in verbal activities than nonverbal activities
  • Perform worse in nonverbal activities than verbal activities
  • Perform worse in spatial than non-spatial activities
  • Perform worse in non-spatial than spatial activities

Question 19

Question
Currently, what are the purposes of neuropsychological assessment?
Answer
  • Determine cognitive capabilities and deficits
  • Establish functional capacity
  • Develop a treatment/rehab plan
  • Clarify diagnosis
  • Measure change over time
  • Diagnose size and shape of lesion

Question 20

Question
What questions might be asked when establishing functional capacity?
Answer
  • Can they live independently?
  • Can they drive?
  • What other services/interventions do they need?
  • How will they get home from the hospital/rehab?

Question 21

Question
In cases of acquired brain injury, time should lead to:
Answer
  • improvement
  • decline
  • full recovery
  • stagnation

Question 22

Question
Over time, dementia usually:
Answer
  • worsens
  • improves
  • remains static

Question 23

Question
What is true of forensic neuropsychological assessment?
Answer
  • Also called "medico-legal" assessment
  • Commonly done by junior neuropsychologists
  • Neuropsychologist considered an expert witness
  • Everything you do has to be defensible in a court of law
  • Rely on patient having had premorbid neuropsychological assessment

Question 24

Question
What is a psychological test?
Answer
  • Measuring device
  • Procedure designed to measure psych-related variables
  • Tool
  • Provide comprehensive diagnostic information

Question 25

Question
What information can neuropsychological assessment take into account?
Answer
  • Test scores
  • Direct observation
  • Info provided by family
  • Objective info from other records
  • Patient's personal preferences

Question 26

Question
Which of the following are approaches to neuropsychological assessment?
Answer
  • Process
  • Composite battery
  • Fixed battery
  • Partial battery
  • Syndrome
  • Paralegal

Question 27

Question
Which approach uses the Luria-Nebraska?
Answer
  • Fixed battery
  • Composite battery
  • Syndrome
  • Partial battery
  • Paralegal
  • Process

Question 28

Question
What is true of the Fixed Battery Approach?
Answer
  • Gives every test in large batteries
  • Gives tests pulled from large batteries at the neuropsychologist's discretion
  • Very common in Australia
  • Can take 4-5 hours
  • Covers a broad range of cognitive functions
  • Follows the hypothesis-testing approach
  • Usually standardised
  • Often uses Weschler tests

Question 29

Question
What are some disadvantages of the Fixed Battery Approach?
Answer
  • Fatigue
  • Does not administer enough tests
  • Does not take into account context
  • Often administered by a psychometrician
  • No direct observation

Question 30

Question
What is true of the Composite Battery approach?
Answer
  • Uses the Luria-Nebraska
  • Does not allow for hypothesis-testing
  • Administers a small battery of tests
  • Often uses Weschler tests

Question 31

Question
What is true of the Syndrome approach?
Answer
  • Follows the medical model
  • Most popular approach
  • Most common in stroke
  • Most common in TBI
  • Describe patient's performance in regards to its closeness to an established syndrome
  • Describe patient's performance in regards to its closeness to normal functioning

Question 32

Question
What is the name given to a tiny metal object lying on the ground that turns out to be a large object buried deep?
Answer
  • Pymble
  • Gordon
  • Turramurra
  • Killara
  • Hornsby

Question 33

Question
What are the characteristics of Balint's syndrome?
Answer
  • Optic ataxia
  • Gaze dyspraxia
  • Object ataxia
  • Simultanagnosia
  • Prosopagnosia
  • Apperceptive agnosia
  • Neglect

Question 34

Question
What is true of simultanagnosia?
Answer
  • Perceptual version of tunnel vision
  • Can't process more than 1 piece of visuo-spatial info at a time
  • Can't process more than 1 piece of visual info at a time
  • Renders person unable to count the number of objects on the desk without using their hand
  • Can't voluntarily shift gaze

Question 35

Question
What do you call it when a person can't voluntarily shift their gaze?
Answer
  • Gaze dyspraxia
  • Gaze ataxia
  • Simultagnosia
  • Optic ataxia

Question 36

Question
Completely missing someone's hand when going in for a handshake may be a sign of:
Answer
  • Optic ataxia
  • Simultanagnosia
  • Gaze dyspraxia
  • Apperceptive agnosia
  • Neglect

Question 37

Question
What is true of the Process approach?
Answer
  • Focuses on binary outcome of test
  • Focuses on strategies used by patient to arrive at the outcome
  • More quantitative than qualitative
  • Greater focus on clinical than statistical methods

Question 38

Question
What is true of Poreh and Kaplan's work?
Answer
  • Quantified the Process approach
  • Called Quantified Process Approach
  • Allows for statistical evaluation of the Process Approach
  • Quantified the Composite Battery approach
  • Called Numerical Battery Approach

Question 39

Question
80% of people in Western countries begin the Bells Test from the:
Answer
  • Top left
  • Top right
  • Centre
  • Anywhere left of centre
  • Bottom left
  • Mid-right

Question 40

Question
What is the mildest form of neglect?
Answer
  • Rightward orienting bias
  • Partial neglect
  • Dyspraxia
  • Ataxia

Question 41

Question
In the Bells test, what is the criteria for neglect?
Answer
  • 3 more bells omitted on one side compared to the other
  • 4 bells omitted overall
  • At least 1 bell omitted on one side and 0 bells omitted on the other
  • 2 bells omitted on each side
  • All bells in periphery omitted

Question 42

Question
What is true of Standard conditions?
Answer
  • Provides a patient's test score in relation to their peers
  • Expect a poor result in the suspected-impaired area
  • Adds in unnecessary error
  • Makes measurement less precise
  • Allows patient cross-comparison
  • Helps to elucidate the impaired function

Question 43

Question
What is true of optimal conditions?
Answer
  • Modifies the test
  • Helps to elucidate the impaired function
  • Allows for use of normative data
  • Removes all test validity

Question 44

Question
What is true of norms?
Answer
  • The vast majority of tests are highly correlated with age
  • Have to at least match your norms to your patient's age group
  • Verbal tests depend on education
  • Visuo-spatial tests always vary by education
  • Australia has large norms on Chinese-Australians

Question 45

Question
How is premorbid functioning estimated?
Answer
  • Measure cognitive functions that are usually not affected by brain injury
  • Often measures irregular word reading
  • Can use Weschler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR)
  • Often uses WAIS
  • Can use the Test of Premorbid Functioning
  • Compare test results to norms
  • Can also use demographics

Question 46

Question
When can people be motivated to under-perform?
Answer
  • Compensation claims
  • Reducing prison sentence
  • Desire for attention
  • Escaping conscription
  • Impress a new boy/girlfriend

Question 47

Question
What is true of practise effects?
Answer
  • Pretty much plateaus out after 3rd administration
  • True improvement/decline is outside the CIs for the true score
  • Can be resolved by using parallel forms
  • Are less common in memory tests

Question 48

Question
What is true of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test?
Answer
  • Requires cognitive flexibility
  • Especially susceptible to novelty effects
  • Measures neuroticism
  • Cannot be done via computer

Question 49

Question
What are examples of qualitative data?
Answer
  • General attitude to testing
  • Motor behaviour
  • Affect/mood
  • Z scores
  • Raw scores

Question 50

Question
Write in numerals: Z score: Mean = [blank_start]0[blank_end], SD= [blank_start]1[blank_end] Scaled score: Mean= [blank_start]10[blank_end], SD= [blank_start]3[blank_end] Standard score: Mean of [blank_start]100[blank_end], SD=[blank_start]15[blank_end] T-score: Mean= [blank_start]50[blank_end], SD= [blank_start]10[blank_end]
Answer
  • 0
  • 1
  • 10
  • 3
  • 100
  • 15
  • 50
  • 10

Question 51

Question
In a standard scale: 50% of scores are between [blank_start]90[blank_end] and [blank_start]110[blank_end] 80% of scores are between [blank_start]80[blank_end] and [blank_start]120[blank_end] 95% of scores are between [blank_start]70[blank_end] and [blank_start]130[blank_end] Under [blank_start]70[blank_end] is intellectual impairment
Answer
  • 70
  • 130
  • 70
  • 90
  • 110
  • 80
  • 120

Question 52

Question
What is true of Pattern Analysis?
Answer
  • Looks at patterns of impairment
  • Compares patient's profile against known clinical profiles
  • Eg dementia will have above-average performance on memory tasks
  • Flat(ish) profile= significant brain impairment
  • Can use the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Statis [RBANS]

Question 53

Question
What is true of clinical signifiance?
Answer
  • = The reliability of the difference between 2 test scores
  • = How unusual the difference between 2 test scores is in the normal population
  • Interesting if the difference only occurs in 5-10% of normal population
  • Clinical groups have similar curves to control groups

Question 54

Question
What is Veridicality?
Answer
  • How well the cognitive test correlates with real world outcomes
  • How well the cognitive test mimics real world situations
  • Correlations between existing tests and functional measures
  • Unstandardized tests

Question 55

Question
What is Verisimilitude?
Answer
  • How well the cognitive test mimics real world situations
  • How well the cognitive test correlates with real world outcomes

Question 56

Question
The Trail Making Test Part B correlates highly with the Occupational Therapy Driving Assessment. What is this an example of?
Answer
  • Veridicality
  • Verisimilitude
  • Verity
  • Vermillion

Question 57

Question
The Tes of Everyday Attention tests ability to perform real world (albeit anachronistic) applications of cognitive functions. What is this an example of?
Answer
  • Veridicality
  • Verisimilitude
  • Verity
  • Vermillion

Question 58

Question
What is the Vector Approach?
Answer
  • Using all available data
  • Drawing conclusions about likely diagnosis
  • Drawing conclusions about likely prognosis
  • Less holistic
  • Less ecological validity
  • Any data inconsistent with the diagnosis must be accounted for

Question 59

Question
What is true of the BREIF-A?
Answer
  • = Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning for Adults
  • Has poor psychometrics
  • Gold-standard of self-report executive functioning measures
  • Has self-report and informant versions

Question 60

Question
What is true of the Cognitive Failures questionnaires?
Answer
  • Follows peoples' day-to-day cognitive challenges
  • Can get self-report and informant versions
  • Gold-standard of self-report executive function measures
  • More holistic

Question 61

Question
Answer in numerals to 1dp: Tests tend to have a [blank_start]0.3[blank_end] correlation with real world functioning
Answer
  • 0.3