1.1 Motor Bx, Expressive Language
& Higher-Order Cognitive fxs
1.2 Primary Motor Cortex
Part of pyramidal system
Controls vol movement
Lesions --> contralateral motor weakness, paralysis, &/or apraxia (disruption in the coordination of complex purposeful movement)
1.2.1 "Intentional Movement"
1.3 Premotor Cortex
Anterior to primary motor cortex
Active during performance of primary motor actions & when observing others perform familiar motor actions
1.4 Broca's Area
1 of Primary language areas
For most, left frontal lobe
Damage --> EXPRESSIVE Aphasia (deficits in written & spoken language) speak slowly and with great difficulty, usually only nouns and verbs, poor articulation, have difficulty repeating phrases, have anomia and an awareness of their deficits
1.4.1 "Impoverished Speech"
1.5 Prefrontal Cortex
Higher-Order cognitive fxs
Damage Dorsolateral Prefrontal Area --> "dysexecutive sydrome" - difficulties px-solving, planning and abstract thinking
Damage to Medial Frontal area--> "pseudodepression" - apathy, lack of motivation and spontaneous movement, and reduced verbal output
Damage to Orbitofrontal area --> "pseudopsychopathy" - sexual disinhibition, course language, peculiar and facetious sense of humor, inappropriate social bs and lack of concern for others.
3.4 D/Os: Cortical Blindness, Loss of Depth Perception,
Visual Agnosia & Other Visual Disturbances
4.1 Auditory Processing & Receptive Language
4.2 Auditory Cortex
Mediation of auditory input
Damage --> Auditory Agnosia (can't distinguish sounds) Auditory Hallucinations, & other auditory pxs
4.2.1 "Auditory Sensation & Perception"
4.3 Wernicke's Area
Usually LTL & involved in comprehension of language
DAMAGE --> Wernicke's (RECEPTIVE) Aphasia - trouble understanding language and produce fluent speech that is normal in rate, rhythm, & articulation but makes no sense.