Cognitive Models


Brief overview of cognitive models implicated in neuropsychology
Royston Hall
Mind Map by Royston Hall, updated more than 1 year ago
Royston Hall
Created by Royston Hall over 8 years ago

Resource summary

Cognitive Models
  1. Executive Function
    1. Supervisory Attentional System
      1. Arousal
        1. Selective Attention
          1. Switching
            1. Norman & Shallice, 1986
            2. Frontal Lobes but wider networks implicated.
              1. Prefrontal cortex - especially for sustained attention
              2. Neuroimagiing has shown common netwrok of activity across all tasks - Neuropsychological tests with multi-component structure (e.g. EF) are unlikely to identify unique patterns of brain activity that correlate perfectly with specific 'domains'. (Poor construct validity)
                1. EF Cognitive Models
                  1. Switching/ Inhibition/ Updating Model
                    1. Miyake et al, 2000
                    2. Executive System Hypothesis (Hierarchy/ central executive)
                      1. Baddeley, 1990
                    3. Regulation (Behaviour/Emotion)
                      1. Switching
                        1. Impulse control
                          1. Inhibition
                            1. Difficult to measure as a construct
                          2. Updating
                            1. Goal Directed Behaviour
                              1. Establish NEW behaviour
                                1. Deficits better understood by observing behaviour? Functional assessments.
                                2. Introspection
                              2. Cognitive flexibility
                                1. Planning
                                  1. Organising
                                    1. Problem Solving
                                      1. Creative thinking
                                        1. Phineas Gage
                                          1. Working Memory
                                            1. Baddeley & Hitch, 1974
                                              1. Cowan, 1995; McElree, 2006
                                                1. Visual and Auditory
                                              2. Attention
                                                1. Sustained Attention
                                                  1. Each construct of attention is defined by its operation but not related to any specific neural substrate
                                                    1. NO known overall neural construct of attention - not associated with functional neuroanatomical substrate
                                                      1. SensoriMotor Network (SMN) only identified area at present. All others based on lesion data:
                                                        1. Parietal Lobe indicated in disengaging attention
                                                          1. Inattention resulting from right posterior hemisphere lesions
                                                      2. Measures testing the same construct do not correlate highly with each other.
                                                        1. Attention Cognitive Models
                                                          1. Three Component Model; Alerting, Orientating Executive Control
                                                            1. Fan & Posner, 2004
                                                            2. Independent system vs integrated with "information processing"
                                                              1. Two-factor attention (Reflex and voluntary)
                                                                1. James, 1890
                                                                1. Wasserman & Wasserman, 2013
                                                                2. Visual and auditoryl Attention
                                                                  1. Shifting Attention
                                                                    1. Top down and Bottom up
                                                                      1. Vigilence
                                                                        1. Working Memory
                                                                        2. Memory
                                                                          1. H.M. case
                                                                            1. Declarative / Explicit
                                                                              1. Semantic
                                                                                1. Episodic
                                                                                    1. Recall
                                                                                      1. Recognition
                                                                                      2. Nondeclarative / Implicit
                                                                                        1. Item-specific (e.g. priming)
                                                                                          1. Procedural
                                                                                          2. Memory Cognitive Models
                                                                                            1. Three stage model of declarative memory
                                                                                              1. McCaugh, 1966
                                                                                                1. Registration
                                                                                                  1. Short Term
                                                                                                    1. Long Term
                                                                                                2. Multicomponent Model
                                                                                                  1. State-based models
                                                                                                  2. Working Memory
                                                                                                    1. Acts as the link between attention and short term memory in the pursuit of specific goals
                                                                                                    2. Short term memory indicated in inferior parietal lobe
                                                                                                      1. Normal learning and retention disrupted in temporal lesions
                                                                                                        1. Hippocampal complex
                                                                                                    3. General Models
                                                                                                      1. Dynamic view of brain organisation (Novelty vs Heuristic processing)
                                                                                                        1. Cortical Systems are multifunctional - don't support only one specific cognitive process.
                                                                                                        2. Static view of brain organisation (e.g. hemispheric; left = language, right = visual perception and seven network model)
                                                                                                          1. Cattell- Horn- Carroll (CHC) model
                                                                                                            1. Carroll, 1993
                                                                                                            2. Four major classes of cognitive functions; Receptive, memory, thinking, expression.
                                                                                                              1. General Intelligence (g)
                                                                                                                1. Terman, 1916
                                                                                                                  1. No longer seen as 'one intelligence' - implication of other independent factors (e.g. processing speed and attention).
                                                                                                                    1. Combination of domain scores risks losing information - unreliable indices of injury severity or deteriation.
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