227 A&P Exam 6

Mary Roth
Quiz by Mary Roth, updated more than 1 year ago
Mary Roth
Created by Mary Roth over 5 years ago
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Description

Practice test for A&P 227 Exam 6 - North Idaho College

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
__________ brace and anchor neurons to capillaries
Answer
  • microglia
  • astrocytes
  • ependymal
  • schwann
  • satellite

Question 2

Question
Choose the correct phrase
Answer
  • nerves are found in the PNS
  • tracts are almost entirely in the PNS
  • cranial nerves are found within the brain
  • gray matter is only in the cerebral cortex
  • white matter is only found in the brain

Question 3

Question
Choose the correct phrase about sensory neurons
Answer
  • the action potential of the central process flows toward the cell body
  • the peripheral process is closest to the CNS
  • the receptive endings are found on the peripheral process
  • most sensory neurons are bipolar
  • the cell body is wrapped by Schwann cells

Question 4

Question
Scenario: a neuron is being measured at -20mV and the voltage is increasing. Which is true?
Answer
  • potassium gates must be closed
  • it now requires a larger than normal graded potential to cause an action potential
  • a state of hyperpolarization exists
  • the cell would fire an action potential less easily
  • opening the potassium gates would depolarize the cell

Question 5

Question
Which is an all-or-none events?
Answer
  • receptor potentials
  • excitatory postsynaptic potentials
  • inhibitory postsynaptic potentials
  • action potentials
  • all but one of these is graded

Question 6

Question
Which is true?
Answer
  • sodium gates open at +30 mV
  • potassium gates close at +30 mV
  • 100 mV is required to open axonal calcium gates
  • opening sodium gates hyperpolarizes a neuron
  • potassium gates close to hyperpolarize a neuron

Question 7

Question
Which of the following is a positive feedback process?
Answer
  • receptor potential
  • EPSP
  • IPSP
  • action potential
  • all of these are positive feedback

Question 8

Question
Choose the correct phrase
Answer
  • the conduction velocity of axons is 100 meters per second
  • unmyelinated axons are faster because the myelin is obstructive
  • the action potential is smaller in shorter axons
  • absolute refractory occurs after relative refractory
  • saltatory conduction occurs in unmyelinated axons

Question 9

Question
What would happen if we blocked presynaptic calcium gates from opening?
Answer
  • presynaptic action potentials would never occur
  • presynaptic chemically sensitive gates would never open
  • postsynaptic potentials would not occur
  • the postsynaptic axon hillock would experience 5 mV stimulus
  • AChEase would not be able to keep up with the excess ACh

Question 10

Question
Choose the correct phrase about REM
Answer
  • also called slow wave sleep
  • occurs after slow wave sleep has been achieved
  • most nightmares occur during this phase of sleep
  • oxygen consumption is slightly less than in NREM
  • occurs between stages 2 and 3 of NREM

Question 11

Question
Parkinsonism is the result of a problem in the
Answer
  • medulla
  • cerebellum
  • diencephalon
  • midbrain
  • spinal cord

Question 12

Question
Important control centers for cardiac, respiration and blood pressure function are located in the
Answer
  • medulla oblongata
  • thalamus
  • pons
  • cerebellum
  • midbrain

Question 13

Question
Where do we find the superior colliculi?
Answer
  • brain stem
  • medulla
  • pons
  • diencephalon
  • thalamus

Question 14

Question
The limbic system is associated with
Answer
  • controlling heart rate
  • emotions
  • precise motor activity
  • maintaining consciousness
  • relaying sensory impulses to the sensory map

Question 15

Question
Which structure controls sleep/wake cycles?
Answer
  • epithalamus
  • brain stem
  • hypothalamus
  • pituitary gland
  • substantia nigra

Question 16

Question
The axonal connections between gyri of opposite hemispheres are called
Answer
  • commissural
  • interventricular
  • projection
  • association
  • ascending and descending

Question 17

Question
Scenario: a person had a stroke affecting the left prefrontal cortex. As a result
Answer
  • sensations will not be felt on the left side of the body
  • sensations will not be felt on the right side of the body
  • problems moving left side effectors will occur
  • the person cannot hear from their right ear or see to their left
  • there may be problem with complex learning and intellect

Question 18

Question
Which is true about Broca's area?
Answer
  • is the main motor relay center
  • controls the substantia nigra
  • relays auditory reflexes
  • is also called the language area
  • controls some neck muscles

Question 19

Question
Choose the correct phrase
Answer
  • motor impulses are ascending
  • sensory impulses are efferent
  • association neurons typically possess central and peripheral processes
  • sensory cell bodies are located in the CNS
  • some motor cell bodies are located in CNS nuclei

Question 20

Question
What happens to pressure in the ventricular system if the cerebral aqueduct is blocked?
Answer
  • pressure falls in the 3rd ventricle
  • pressure rises in the 4th ventricle
  • no change in pressure
  • pressure rises in the 3rd, but falls in the laterals
  • pressure rises in the laterals

Question 21

Question
Which of the following is correct?
Answer
  • ACh is a neurotransmitter found only in the peripheral nervous system
  • ACh is only classified by structure or function, but not by both
  • biogenic amines are found in most PNS circuits
  • metabotropic neurotransmitters use intracellular second messengers
  • more than one of these is correct

Question 22

Question
A __________ is a cluster of cell bodies in the PNS
Answer
  • nerve
  • pyramidal cell
  • ganglion
  • nucleus
  • tract

Question 23

Question
Which of the following is correct about a resting neuron?
Answer
  • the sodium/potassium pumps are always running
  • potassium constantly leaks into the cell
  • sodium is always leaking out of the cell
  • the calcium pump maintains resting ion levels
  • calcium is found in the SR

Question 24

Question
__________ waves are seen when concentrating
Answer
  • alpha
  • beta
  • theta
  • delta
  • gamma

Question 25

Question
Which is a way the numerical value of the resting membrane potential can be expressed?
Answer
  • the inside of the fiber is 70mV
  • the outside of the fiber is -70mV
  • the inside of the fiber is 70mV more positive than the outside
  • the outside of the fiber is 70mV more positive than the inside
  • none of these conditions is correct

Question 26

Question
Which one of the following is true about memory?
Answer
  • almost unlimited data can be stored in STM
  • Na+ channel blockers helps memory
  • LTM neurons have different mRNA
  • LTM is limited to 7-8 bits of information
  • slight parasympathetic dominance helps memory processes

Question 27

Question
The membrane potential of a resting neuron is maintained by
Answer
  • Na+ gates
  • an active process
  • diffusion
  • passive forces
  • osmosis

Question 28

Question
A neurotransmitter that increases postsynaptic permeability to potassium results in
Answer
  • an EPSP
  • an IPSP
  • stabilization of sodium and potassium levels
  • a refractory period that lasts up to 2 seconds
  • breakdown of the all-or-none principle

Question 29

Question
During the absolute refractory period a second action potential can be produced
Answer
  • when the second stimulus is larger than the threshold
  • when the second stimulus is less than the 20mV
  • if multiple stimuli are given in a short duration
  • under no circumstances
  • if the cell is hyperpolarized

Question 30

Question
Which best defines the concept: summation?
Answer
  • neurotransmitter combines with a receptor on a postsynaptic neuron
  • several IPSPs have just reached threshold level
  • the effect of graded potentials are added together
  • the presynaptic neuron summates all of its vesicles
  • adding the total number of neurons in a specific circuit

Question 31

Question
What eventually happens when action potentials reach the axon terminals of an EPSP neuron?
Answer
  • calcium gates will open in the terminals
  • summation will always result
  • an action potential occurs in the postsynaptic dendrite
  • a single IPSP will always result
  • calcium exocytosis will cause neurotransmitter release

Question 32

Question
__________are small oval shaped phagocytes
Answer
  • astrocytes
  • microglial
  • ependymal
  • satellite cells
  • oligodendrocytes

Question 33

Question
Which of the following is most correct?
Answer
  • the magnitude or size of the action potential is +30 mV
  • all axons send graded potentials to their terminals
  • action potentials must reach the axon hillock in order to start an action potential
  • 20 mV must reach the axon hillock in order to start an action potential
  • it takes 20 mV to cause an action potential in a hyperpolarized cell

Question 34

Question
Select the correct statement
Answer
  • diverging circuits are amplifying circuits
  • converging circuits are common in sensory and motor pathways
  • parallel after discharge circuits are involved in problem solving skills
  • reverbrating circuits are circular pathways
  • all of these are true

Question 35

Question
Select the correct statement
Answer
  • a single neuron can release all types of neurotransmitters
  • gray matter is considered to be a tract
  • unmyelinated neurons are insulated from one another
  • a receptor potential is exactly like an action potential
  • Schwann cells build the endoneurium

Question 36

Question
Which is true about presynaptic inhibition?
Answer
  • increases the graded potential delivered to the postsynaptic cell
  • will reduce the graded potential experienced by the postsynaptic cell
  • increases parasympathetic neurotransmitter release
  • affects the amount of AChEase released
  • works just like a generator potential

Question 37

Question
Which is the best way to repolarize a neuron?
Answer
  • open sodium gates
  • use a sodium/potassium pump
  • open potassium gates
  • open both sodium and potassium gates at the same time
  • open chemically sensitive potassium gates

Question 38

Question
Select the correct statement
Answer
  • chemically sensitive gates are found in synapses
  • chemically sensitive sodium gates are found in axon membrane
  • due to diffusion, sodium wants to flow out of a normal neuron
  • chemically sensitive potassium gates are found in the axonal endings
  • calcium gates are mostly found in the postsynaptic dendrite

Question 39

Question
What happens if we reverse the wires on a meter that is measuring resting potential in a neuron?
Answer
  • the meter remains at -70 mV
  • the meter now reads +70 mV
  • the meter reads zero mV
  • the meter would jump to +30 mV
  • the meter indicates a hyperpolarized state

Question 40

Question
Which is true about graded potentials?
Answer
  • occur on axons and dendrites
  • are sometimes 100 mV in magnitude
  • they are considered all-or-none
  • their magnitude is typically -50 mV
  • could be 15 mV in magnitude

Question 41

Question
Choose the correct phrase
Answer
  • motor impulses are considered ascending
  • association circuits are exclusively in the spinal cord
  • activating glands is an afferent function
  • somatic pathways activate cardiac muscle
  • autonomic impulses control smooth muscle

Question 42

Question
Which cell is associated with multiple sclerosis?
Answer
  • ependymal cells
  • Schwann cells
  • satellite cells
  • astrocytes
  • oligodendrocytes

Question 43

Question
Schwann cell membrane tightly wrapped around axons is called __________
Answer
  • neurilemma
  • node of Ranvier
  • myelin
  • endoneurium
  • perineurium

Question 44

Question
Which is true?
Answer
  • the transverse fissure separates frontal from parietal lobes
  • the central sulcus separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum
  • we discussed only two fissures in the human brain
  • the lateral sulcus divides the cerebrum into two hemispheres
  • there are only two sulci

Question 45

Question
Which is true?
Answer
  • the dominant hemisphere is considered language dominant
  • the left hemisphere is always dominate
  • a person that is right dominant is always ambidexterous
  • art and music appreciation are attributed to the dominant hemisphere
  • logic, math, reasoning skills are associated with the non-dominant hemisphere

Question 46

Question
Scenario: a presynaptic neuron summates three 5 mV EPSPs. What happens?
Answer
  • a 105 mV potential will travel down it's axon
  • axon hillock will send 20 mV to the dendrites
  • 100 mV will reach it's axonal endings
  • the postsynaptic cell will not receive neurotransmitter from it
  • postsynaptic dendrites will propagate an action potential

Question 47

Question
Which connects the cerebellum to the brain stem?
Answer
  • cerebellar peduncles
  • superior colliculi
  • the pons
  • cerebral peduncles
  • medulla oblongata

Question 48

Question
Which is true?
Answer
  • anterograde amnesia is the loss of past memories
  • absence seizures are the most severe form
  • eyes rapidly moving during NREM
  • "consciousness" is the best understood of all neurophysiology
  • tonic-clonic seizures were formerly called grand mal

Question 49

Question
Which is the "sensory map" of the body?
Answer
  • Broca's area
  • primary somatosensory cortex
  • somatosensory association cortex
  • prefrontal cortex
  • the general interpretation area

Question 50

Question
What would happen to a cell if you destroyed it's Nissl bodies?
Answer
  • it's function would be improved
  • protein production would be affected
  • ion gate function would immediately cease
  • ATP level would increase
  • mitochondria would increase activity to make more protein
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