Sociology

sanga_san
Quiz by sanga_san, updated more than 1 year ago
sanga_san
Created by sanga_san about 7 years ago
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SOCI 111 college study exam

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
The concept that describes opening a window into unfamiliar worlds that allows us to understand human behavior by placing it within its broader social context is called....
Answer
  • Sociological perspective (or imagination)
  • Social location
  • Social integration
  • The social imperative

Question 2

Question
When sociologists group people into categories bases on their age, gender, educational level, job, income, they are trying to determine.....
Answer
  • Social network
  • Social location
  • social personality
  • social skills

Question 3

Question
The sociological perspective emphasizes how the social context influences people's lives, particularly how people are influenced by....
Answer
  • random chance events
  • geographical location
  • inherited genetic structure
  • society

Question 4

Question
The notion that only the fittest members of society deserve to survive and that social programs to help the poor will ultimately weaken the social order is a doctrine known as....
Answer
  • Social Darwinism
  • positivism
  • post-modern
  • social welfare

Question 5

Question
The term "survival of the fittest." Which is a principle part of the concept of social Darwinism was coined by...
Answer
  • Charles Darwin
  • Talcott Parsons
  • August Comte
  • Herbert Spencer

Question 6

Question
The first African American to earn a doctorate from Harvard University, who spent his lifetime studying race relations in America and was one of the founders of the NAACP was...
Answer
  • W.E.B. Du Bois
  • Booker T. Washington
  • George Washington Carver

Question 7

Question
Mark views society as a system of interrelated parts, while John views society as composed of groups competing for scarce resources. Mark would be considered a (n)______ and John would be seen as a (an) __________
Answer
  • Symbolic interactionist; functionalist
  • applied sociologist; functionalist
  • basic sociologist; applied sociologist
  • functionalist; conflict theorist

Question 8

Question
According to Robert Merton, ____ are the intended beneficial consequences of people's actions.
Answer
  • latent functions
  • manifest dysfunctions
  • manifest functions
  • latent dysfunctions

Question 9

Question
Language, beliefs, values, norms, behavior, material objects, and technology that are passed from one generation to the next by members of society describe_______.
Answer
  • Culture
  • Tradition
  • Science
  • Experience

Question 10

Question
Sociologists use the concept of "norms" to describe ________.
Answer
  • Standards by which people define what is socially desirable
  • Expressions of disapproval for violating socially acceptable behavior.
  • Ideas about what is true or false
  • Expectations or rules of behavior that develop from values

Question 11

Question
When a group has a distinctive away of looking at life, but at the same time its values and norms reflect the dominant culture of its society, the group would be considered a (n) ____.
Answer
  • Counterculture
  • Example of cultural relativism
  • Example of cultural diffusion
  • Subculture

Question 12

Question
The sociologist who identified ten underlying core values of American society was _____.
Answer
  • Michael Burawoy
  • Edward Wilson
  • Robin Williams
  • John Jacob Natzke

Question 13

Question
The spread of cultural characteristics from one group to another refers to _____.
Answer
  • folkways
  • cultural leveling
  • values
  • cultural universals

Question 14

Question
Within a few blocks in midtown Manhattan, you can purchase a bagel with cream cheese, a hot dog, a steak, a polish sausage, or a pizza, as well as chow mein, lamb curry, sushi, lasagna, felafels, chicken couscous, enchiladas, and a host of ethnic specialties. This range of culinary possibilities illustrates the process of ______.
Answer
  • cultural absolution
  • cultural discovery
  • cultural diffusion
  • cultural innovation

Question 15

Question
In the "nature versus nurture" argument regarding socialization, the nurture" component refers to _____.
Answer
  • Heredity
  • The social environment
  • instinct
  • genetic composition

Question 16

Question
What concept do sociologists refer to when they say that " society makes us human"?
Answer
  • Stratification
  • Psychoanalysis
  • Cultural tradition
  • Socialization

Question 17

Question
The process by which we develop a sense of self, referred to as the " looking glass self", was developed by _____.
Answer
  • George Herbert Mead
  • William I. Thomas
  • Charles Horton Cooley
  • Robert K. Merton

Question 18

Question
The symbolic interactionist who taught at the University of Chicago and stressed that play was crucial to develpment of the concept of self was _________.
Answer
  • Charles Horton Cooley
  • Lester Ward
  • George Herbert Mead
  • Talcott Parsons

Question 19

Question
According to Piaget, the stage of development that is dominated by touching, listening, looking, and the inability to recognize cause and effect is the ______ stage.
Answer
  • Formal operational
  • Preoperational
  • Sensorimotor
  • Concrete operational

Question 20

Question
In Kohlberg's theory of moral development, the stage in which the child has no sense of right or wrong and only personal needs is satisfied is the _______ stage.
Answer
  • Amoral
  • Preconventional
  • Conventional
  • Postconventional

Question 21

Question
In Freud's theory, what part of the personality represents the pleasure seeking aspect, demanding immediate fulfillment of basic needs such as attention, food, safety, and sex?
Answer
  • the id
  • the ego
  • the superego
  • the libido

Question 22

Question
People and groups that influence our orientation ___ our self-concepts, emotions, attitudes, and behaviors- are called _______.
Answer
  • Total institutions
  • Generalized others
  • Agents of socialization
  • out-groups

Question 23

Question
What term applies to the stages that people pass from birth to death, beginning with "childhood" and concluding with " the older years"?
Answer
  • Rites of Passage
  • Life theme
  • The life course
  • stages of development

Question 24

Question
Another term used for the stage of development called transitional adulthood, which is between the ages of 18 and 29 is ____.
Answer
  • The middle years
  • Adultolescence
  • The sandwich generation
  • Mid-life crisis

Question 25

Question
In Amsterdam, a 21-year-old prostitute is scantily clothed, exhibiting her attributes in a storefront, smiling at potential patrons as they walk by. Based on this mental image, which statement best describes what is in progress?
Answer
  • This is an example of social interaction
  • a misdemeanor is being committed
  • The prostitute is guilty of indecent exposure
  • This is a classic example of macrosociology

Question 26

Question
What two sociological perspectives are most linked to macrosociology?
Answer
  • symbolic interactionism and functionalism
  • functionalism and the conflict perspective
  • the conflict perspective and symbolic interactionism
  • symbolic interactionism and feminism

Question 27

Question
Which sociological perspective is most linked to microsociology
Answer
  • the conflict perspective
  • structural functionalism
  • symbolic interactionism
  • the feminist perspective

Question 28

Question
John and Doug are both full professors in a state university, holding doctorate degrees from Ivy League schools. Both make about the same salary and enjoy a similar sense of prestige in the community and on campus. Based only on this information, what do John and Doug have in common?
Answer
  • They share the same social location in all respects
  • they have identical social roles
  • They are members of the same social class
  • they share a great deal of social solidarity

Question 29

Question
What are the three primary variable in determining social class?
Answer
  • race, sex, residence
  • income, education, and occupational prestige
  • race, sex, income
  • income, education, sex

Question 30

Question
Jane is a 49-year-old woman of Irish-German descent. What do these characteristics have in common?
Answer
  • These are examples of her ascribed statuses
  • these are examples of her achieved statuses
  • these are part of her master status
  • these characteristics are examples of status inconsistency

Question 31

Question
A position in society that cuts across other statuses a person holds, such as being a high-ranking army officer, a college president, or a handicapped Olympian, would be considered that person's _____
Answer
  • ascribed status
  • social status
  • master status
  • status set

Question 32

Question
Which of the following least qualified as a social institution?
Answer
  • a neighborhood street gang
  • a family
  • a religious group
  • a military unit

Question 33

Question
The social institution that is most recognized for allocating power, determining authority, and preventing chaos is _______.
Answer
  • military
  • politics
  • law
  • education

Question 34

Question
As societies grow larger, they divide work among members based on some standardized characteristics such as age or sex. This is referred to as _______.
Answer
  • social solidarity
  • social imperative
  • division of labor
  • class structure

Question 35

Question
Mechanical solidarity is to Gemeinshaft as _________ solidarity is to Gesellshaft.
Answer
  • organic
  • tribal
  • folk
  • natural

Question 36

Question
Anthony, a retired Army officer, is a professor of sociology at a small state university. During the Vietnam War, he was awarded the Medal of Honor and he usually wears a small ribbon on the lapel of his suit coat denoting this. He also wears his West Point ring from the class of 1965. Using the terminology of dramaturgy, the lapel pin and lass ring would be classified as ______.
Answer
  • Stages
  • Background assumptions
  • role performances
  • props

Question 37

Question
A face-saving technique in which all parties involved in an embarrassing situation ignore it and continue their conversation or interaction as though the embarrassing situation never happened is referred to as _______.
Answer
  • redefining the situation
  • teamwork
  • studied nonobservance
  • impression management

Question 38

Question
If people define a situation as real, they are real in the consequences. This statement is known as the ______.
Answer
  • Peter principle
  • Thomas theorem
  • Ouchi principle
  • Garfinkel theorem

Question 39

Question
A statement that describes how variables are expected to be related to one another, often according to predictions from a theory, is known as a _______.
Answer
  • correlation
  • hypotheses
  • secondary prediction
  • primary function

Question 40

Question
Every research method has its drawbacks. Which method often leads the current researcher to question the manner in which the data were gathered, the accuracy of the data, and the training of the original researcher?
Answer
  • Secondary analysis
  • Participant observation
  • Experiments
  • interviews

Question 41

Question
When Peter Rossi and the National Opinion Research Center studied the homeless, it was necessary for them to develop a practical and accurate description to determine exactly what constituted being homeless. This description would be classified as a (n) ______.
Answer
  • research objective
  • hypothesis
  • operational definition
  • correlation

Question 42

Question
Matthew is completing his master's thesis, which addresses the culture of outlaw motorcycle gangs. For the past six months, he has been riding with the gang, observing and describing behaviors in an attempt to present a view of these groups from a gang members perspective. Like Mario Brajuha, he is determined to keep the identities of his subjects confidential. Which research method is Matthew employing?
Answer
  • a case study
  • documentary
  • participant observation
  • unobtrusive measures

Question 43

Question
The term "_________" refers to the extent to which different studies come up with similar results.
Answer
  • Validity
  • Replication
  • Reliability
  • duplication

Question 44

Question
In research, to generalize one's findings to a total population, what is the most important quality that the sample must possess?
Answer
  • It must include at least 25% of the total population
  • it must be representative of the total population
  • it must consist of people who are selected and people who volunteer
  • it must be quantitative in order to make comparisons

Question 45

Question
What is defining characteristic of a random sample?
Answer
  • It consists of an equal number of men and women
  • it is created by asking questions of people who randomly happen to walk by
  • It gives each person in the population of interest an equal chance of being chosen
  • it ensures that every person in the sample represents a specific racial, gender, or religious group

Question 46

Question
What is the major problem with using participant observation as a research tool?
Answer
  • It often leads to finding a lack of generalizability
  • It is unacceptable based on standards of the American Sociological Association
  • it lacks both validity and reliability
  • it is highly biased

Question 47

Question
What are three qualities on which research ethics is based?
Answer
  • rapport, generalizability, validity
  • honesty, truth, openness
  • random sample, observation, fieldwork
  • consistency, accuracy, clarity

Question 48

Question
What term best applies to people who share culture and a territory?
Answer
  • a society
  • a bureaucracy
  • an aggregate
  • a category

Question 49

Question
Although it is the most egalitarian, what was the one social division common to all hunting and gathering societies?
Answer
  • Class differences based on relation ship to the means of production
  • Prestige based on male labor
  • Social class based on accumulated property
  • Social stratification based on race

Question 50

Question
What was the impetus for the first social revolution?
Answer
  • the domestication of plants and animals
  • the invention of steam engine
  • the invention of the plow
  • the establishment of cities

Question 51

Question
The "dawn of civilization" is the most associated with which social revolution?
Answer
  • domestication
  • agriculture
  • industrialization information

Question 52

Question
Why did the creation of the industrial society lead to greater social inequality?
Answer
  • Class differences were minimized which created greater opportunity.
  • The new technology was far more efficient than anything that preceded it, leading to larger surpluses and greater inequality
  • Democracies replace monarchies and dictatorships encouraged capitalism.
  • Intellectual capability increased with advances in science and technology

Question 53

Question
Which was the first nation to have an excess of 50% of its workforce in the service industries?
Answer
  • The United States
  • Germany
  • Japan
  • China

Question 54

Question
Some social analysts believe that postindustrial society will be followed by a biotech society. Such a society would be characterized by _____.
Answer
  • a greater respect for the environment
  • the merging of work and leisure activity
  • an economy centering around application of genetic structures
  • The elimination of fossil fuels

Question 55

Question
A group characterized by intimate, long-term, face-to-face association and cooperation is referred to as a ________.
Answer
  • secondary group
  • clique
  • primary group
  • community

Question 56

Question
______are the social ties that radiate outward from the self and link people together.
Answer
  • Cyber socialization
  • Secondary societies
  • Social networks
  • electronic communities

Question 57

Question
Who conducted the classic experiment addressing the power of peer pressure that included six stooges and one actual test subject viewing cards with lines of varying length?
Answer
  • Stanley Milgram
  • Robert Merton
  • Philip Zimbardo
  • Solomon Asch

Question 58

Question
What did Stanley Milgram's teacher-learner experiment demonstrate?
Answer
  • A substantial number of people will inflict pain on others if ordered to do so by a person in a position of authority
  • Most people conform to social norms, even when told to deviate from them by persons in authority
  • Group conformity is the most important social relationship people seek to achieve
  • Individualism is among the most cherished personal qualities one can possess

Question 59

Question
In group decision making, a form of tunnel vision that develops in which there is only one "right" viewpoint and suggested alternatives are perceived as signs of disloyalty is called _____.
Answer
  • brainwashing
  • groupthink
  • mental programming
  • group polarization

Question 60

Question
Sociologists usually embrace Freudian theory on personality development because of its universal acceptance among social sciences.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 61

Question
Parents are the first significant others to teach children about the fundamental symbolic division of the world.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 62

Question
Gender serves as the primary basis for social inequality.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 63

Question
Social class, gender, race and ethnicity are aspects of one's life into the category of social location
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 64

Question
Because of the power of peers and social institutions, we are all prisoners of socializtion
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 65

Question
Conflict theorists and functionalists would most likely focus on things as social class and group relationships and would use the macrosociological approach.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 66

Question
Ascribed status is involuntary and achieved status is voluntary.
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 67

Question
When an instrument measures what it is intended to measure, it is considered to possess the quality of reliability
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 68

Question
The individuals that are inteded to represent the population to be studied are referred to as the sample
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 69

Question
One of the liabilities in using the participant observation as a research method is that findings are difficult to generalize
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 70

Question
In hunting and gathering societies, men routinely contributed the most food to the group
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 71

Question
Inequality did not become a fundamental feature of life in society until the industrial revolution
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 72

Question
The industrial revolution began in Great Britain in 1765 when the steam engine was first used to run machinery
Answer
  • True
  • False
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