Why is it useful to determine the proteomes of simple organisms?
To create better vaccines
To allow monitoring of pathogens in outbreaks of disease
So that we can alter our own genetics to make these proteins
To learn more about introns
Why is it hard to translate the genome of complex organisms into their proteomes?
They have large sections of non-coding DNA
Their mRNA is hard to extract
They contain complex regulatory genes
Some genes are switched off so not all the possible proteins are made
What are the benefits of the new sequencing methods compared to the original method devised by Frederick Sanger?
They are automated
They are done on a much smaller scale so they are faster
They cost less to do
They involve less chemicals
Because DNA is [blank_start]universal[blank_end], the recipient of recombinant DNA does not have to be of the same species as the donor.
Making DNA fragments from mRNA
1. Extract target mRNA molecules from a cell that produces the required protein.
2. Mix the mRNA with free DNA nucleotides and [blank_start]reverse transcriptase[blank_end].
3. The mRNA is used as a template for new strands of [blank_start]cDNA[blank_end] to be synthesised that are complementary to it.
a restriction endonuclease
[blank_start]Restriction Endonucleases[blank_end] digest the DNA at specific [blank_start]recognition[blank_end] sequences. These sites are special because they are [blank_start]palindromic[blank_end], meaning that they consist of [blank_start]antiparallel[blank_end] base pairs.
Some types of this enzyme cut the DNA so that small tails of unpaired bases are created at each end of the fragment. These are called [blank_start]sticky[blank_end] ends and can be used to [blank_start]anneal[blank_end] DNA fragments together as long as the ends are complementary.