Application- Child psychology is an aspect of developmental psychology and looks at areas like cognitive development, language acquisition, moral development and social skills from birth to adolescence. This is so we can further the psychodynamic approach, look into the Nature vs nurture debate and help children developAttachment- A two way emotional bond between an infant and caregiverDetachment- a loss of primary attachment figure through things like divorce, day care etcPrivation- Lack of an attachment figure, attachment never formed possible through neglect Evolution- An advancement of species through survival of the fittest, inheritance of certain traits and preprogrammed behaviour to aid survivalDaycare- Non parental care from nurseries or child minders can be seen as short term deprivationSeparation anxiety- When distress is shown because the attachment figure is not there. PROTEST DESPAIR DETACHMENT
Bowlby's theory of attachment
Origins for attachment can be found in evolution as it is necessary for survival
Children can develop an attachment to a single caregiver (monotropy) in the critical period
imprinting and proximity seeking behaviours are preprogrammed to protect the child from danger
deprivation or loss of attachment can affect later development
rejected children may view themselves as unworthy of love
lorenz imprinting of geese supports critical period
led to changes in institutions like daycare
No difference between deprivation and privation
does not take quality into consideration
The principle of evolution is survival. Behaviour and adaption is for survival we must pass on our genetics.A child should be close to the parent to survive. This closeness means that a child can be protected against danger.This is done through imprinting or attachment. Imprinting is when a young animal comes to recognise another as a parent or caregiver. Attachment is a necessary emotional bond between infant and caregiver. Once imprinted or attached, proximity promoting behaviours are exhibited such as crying or smiling in a human infant. These behaviours are innate, and are driven during the critical period in order to aid survival. This survival is an evolutionary advantage over more vulnerable species being wiped out
lorenz's research gives evidence to support innate behaviours
Reed and Leaderman- kenyan infants are an appropriate models
stressful situations quicken imprinting
precocial animals can not be generalisable
Only some animals show imprinting. These are known as precocial animals – animals who are physically mobile and alert from birth (geese, horses, antelope, wildebeest) Therefore, findings may only be specific to that kind of animal
Bowlby's Maternal deprivation
Children must have the constant presence of the mother/caregiver throughout the critical period
Any breaking of this attachment may affect personality, social growth, intellectual ability, and emotional ability.
It could also result in affectionless psychopathy.
The effect of deprivation is permanent and irreversible.
Deprivation can result in a poor working internal model as a future template for later relationships.
Long term= (Belsky and Rovine) trouble making relationships in later life, affectionless psychopathyshort term= separation anxiety- PROTEST, DESPAIR, DETACHMENT
Ainsworth's strange situation
1- enter2- baby explore3- stranger enters, parent leaves4- stranger tries to interact5- parent enters, comforts, leaves6- stranger leaves7- stranger comes in and interacts8- parent comes in, stranger leavesSECURE- 70% distressed and comforted INSECURE AVOIDANT- 15%- not distressedINSECURE AMBIVALENT - 15%- distressed and can't be comforted
collected a lot of data
valid- Naturalistic + interviews
Temperament hard to measure
conclusions incomplete (4th attachment type found)
responsiveness of mother taken into account not child's temperament
Ainsworth's study cross culture
Israel- Israel had the highest percentage of insecure ambivalent attachment types. Sage studied children living in an Israeli Kibbutzim, a commune or collective community where childrearing is shared and children are often raised by a metapelet (non-biological community member). The insecure ambivalent attachment type was found in the kibbutz children because the mother could not give prompt attention to individual children. Kibbutz children have extended childcare, often experiencing communal sleeping arrangements. This cultural difference affecting the attachment type is supported further by Sagi et al (1991) comparing the Kibbutz children who experienced family sleeping arrangements and communal sleeping. They found that children who slept with family showed 'normal' attachment patterns compared with children who slept communally.Germany- Grossman et a. (1985) found a greater number of insecure avoidant attachment types. This does not mean that German mothers are insensitive to their children's needs. Grossman et al conducted extensive observations of family life in Germany and concluded that the over-representation of insecure ambivalent attachment types was due to the cultural value placed on independence and early weaning.Japan- Miyake et al (1985) found a higher number of insecure avoidant attachment types in Japan than in the USA, but no insecure ambivalent attachment types at all. Miyake explained that traditional Japanese children are kept close to pacify them and they rarely cry. In the strange situation procedure, these children would become very distressed. Durrett et al (1984) observed that in modern Japanese families, mothers do go out to work and leave their children. The attachment types found amongst these modern families are similar to those found in the USABALITMORE- 65% secure, 23% insecure avoidant, 12% insecure ambivalentSAGI- 37% secure, 13% insecure avoidant, 50% insecure ambivalentGROSSMAN- 33% secure, 49% insecure avoidant. 18% insecure ambivalentMIYAKE- 68% secure, 0% insecure avoidant, 32% insecure ambivalent
Also studied mother-child interactions in Uganda as well, but carried out observations and interviews rather than using the strange situation test. She gathered information about the babies and also about the mother's sensitivity. The Ugandan mothers tended to have securely attached babies who did not cry much and used their mother to explore, and the ugandan mothers were sensitive to their babies needsAround 70% of the US mothers were sensitive mothers and had securely attached children as well, so there are similarities between the two cultures. The Ugandan mothers also had some Type A insecurely attached children as did the US mothers. The US study in Baltimore used the strange situation test but also interviews and observations at the child's home to obtain information about sensitive mothering. In the main it was reported that the two studies gave similar data, so the attachment types were thought to be universal.
Easing short term separation with a replacement attachment figure
Providing more individual care and stimulation
Coping with divorce and separation
Easing short term separation with a replacement attachment figure
Providing more individual care and stimulation
Coping with divorce and separation
Reducing deprivation (cont.)
Providing more individual care and stimulation-
Some studies in orphanages show that having someone specific to support the children or to provide stimulation could improve the effects of deprivation.
Improvements in IQ were found if there was more stimulation or a lower child to carer ratio.
The effects of deprivation seem to be able to be overcome, but only if additional care and more stimulation are introduced.
The chance of overcoming the negative effects will depend on the age of the child and the length of deprivation.
Reducing Deprivation (Cont)
Children are likely to go through protest, distress and despair
the same ideas are used in this situation.
Ensure there is an attachment figure still remaining
Ensure the child has more individual care and stimulation
But some others are added:
Maintain regular contact with estranged partner
Minimise conflict for the child
A- to help Genie & to see if a child over 13 could learn a languageP- Data was gathered by working & observing Genie, weekly interviews with Genie's mother but she would say what she the social workers wanted to hear. There was daily doctors reports about genie and tape recordings were made and catalogued as well as observations and language testsR- When tested in 1971 she could achieve some things an 8-9 year old could do but other activities she could only reach the level of a 2 year old and she displayed some awareness. she started asking for the names of things around her. She learned language but her development was not normal e.g delayed responses 1974- understood but not fully C- did learn a lot of language and other skills, her development had caught up. It could not be concluded that their was no critical period for language acquisition
Strengths--Rich detailed qualitative data which is valid-privacy was protected with Pseudonym Weaknesses--suggested developmental disorder in infancy-living with the psychologists=taking advantage-little mention of consent, right to withdraw or debrief-by asking Genie to talk about how she was treated she would have been put under a lot of stress
Bowlby's 44 Juvenile thieves
A- to see if he could understand the reason for becoming thieves P- London Child Guidance clinic from 1936 to 1939. Used interviews, case histories + psychological testing to look for patterns in the backgrounds for young people. Mental tests to assess intelligence as well as undertaking an assessment of the child's emotional attitudes towards the tests and preliminary psychiatric history. Bowlby then interviewed the child and the mother. Often more interviews followed along with psychotherapy few bases were studied due to the depth required.R-More than half of the juvenile thieves had been separated from their mothers for longer than six months during their first five years. In the control group only two had had such a separation. 14 of the young thieves (32%) showed 'affectionless psychopathy' None of the control group were. 86% of the ‘affectionless psychopaths’ in group 1 had experienced a long period of maternal separation before the age of 5 years F- Bowlby concluded that maternal separation/deprivation in the child’s early life caused permanent emotional damage
in depth detailed, qualitative and quantitive data so likely to be valid
matched control group without it he would not have been able to draw such a strong conclusion
Weaknesses-Would have liked to have another control group, many areas of a child's development that weren't studied
Characteristics- love control over things/ organising, savant memory, problems with social interactions and personal spaceExplanations-Theory of Mind- Not seeing things from other people's perspectives, lack of social skills, language not the main focustest- Baron Cohen's sally ann task used- helps parents understand their child's lack of development Extreme male brain- increase pf testosterone during development. Characteristics like reduced verbal skills and increased spacial skills, lack of empathising skill and out perform in systemising tasks. Helps parents understand their child's specialism in maths but why their language is under developed
Definition- A situation where a child is cared for by someone other than their parents. Can be short term or everyday. Can be private or government funded. Rules and regulations.positive: good quality can be beneficial for some children as they get stimulation they wouldn't get at homenegative: could cause short term deprivation and can be detrimental for children under 1 if the care is bad qualityRules: types of washing facilities, minimum number of staff, floor space per child, curriculum, how many children allowed in a roomRatio: one - two years 1:3 two- three years 1:4 three- seven years 1:8ResearchNICHDEPPEBelsky
NICHD- USA about the disadvantages of daycareA- effects of daycare M+P- longitudinal study, observation, interview, survey, 1,200 children R+C- too much time in daycare leads to behavioural problems like aggression, nursery based care led to cognitive and language improvements and increased behavioural problems. high quality of daycare led to high cognitive and language development whereas poor quality daycare was especially bad for children with insensitive mothersEPPE- UK about the advantagesA- different types of daycare and there effectsM+P- longitudinal study, two groups (daycare and home) 3000 children, 144 centres 3-11 yearsR+C- higher quality care= improved social, intellectual and behavioural development. The earlier they started the better the intellectual improvement. Better sociability, independence and concentration
Strengths of NICHD- Accurate as longitudinal, validity and reliability as more than one research method used.Weaknesses of NICHD- Not reliable as many variables were involved so hard to draw good conclusionsStrengths of EPPE- controlled, accurate, valid and reliableWeaknesses of EPPE- Biased as government funded, Non generalisable and not reliable as many extraneous variablesSimilarities-both found strengths, both longitudinal studies, compared daycare with home care, same aims, both found high quality daycare betterDifferences- EPPE government funded, EPPE used children from different backgrounds, Different age ranges, different population sizes, Different countries
NICHD and EPPE
Belsky's private conclusions on the NICHD and EPPE. He suggested the government should put in place measures such as changes in tax policies. Good quality care= better cognitive and language abilities. Long term= more problem behaviour. the important features of daycare are quality, quantity and typeBelsky and Rovine studied infants aged 12-13 months they found infants who spent more than 20 hours per week were more likely to be assessed as insecurely attached with their mother when compared with these who were cared for at home. they found evidence daycare can be harmful and will had a positive or negative on social development may depend on the attachment type of the infant before they enter day care
Valid: takes into account many factors that can affect a child's experience
Reliable: Large, carefully chosen samples
Validity: many variables not taken into account so hard to draw good conclusions
Not generalisable: conducted within one culture or country cross cultural findings in other areas suggest differences
Reducing the negative effects of daycare
Types of daycare- attention vs number of peers
start daycare sooner- sylva; found it can be beneficial to start early
Quality of daycare- high quality is beneficial
low staff turnover: helps reduce stronger anxiety
Key workers: A significant adult, will comfort a child in times of stress, main attachment figure or nursery
Key issue: Daycare
Describe: Daycare is any form of care where the parents or family of the child are not involved, but which is daily it can be considered a form of deprivation. There are advantages like improved intellectual and social developments. But there are disadvantages like the positives depending on quantity and quality.This is an issue because parents are provided with conflicting evidence what is best for the child. This can cause problems when deciding when and how long their child goes into daycare. This issue will be investigated by a content analysis
Aim- To investigate the effect of daycare on children. The null hypothesis of this practical would be that there is no difference between the positive and negative effects of daycare. The alternative hypothesis would be that there is more of a positive effect from daycare than negativeMethod- Content analysis on articles onlineProcedure- Type into google 'What are the effects of daycare on children" then selected the top articles to read and collect data. The apparatus that i used was a laptop and the internet. The themes i was looking for was any words or phrases that had either positive or negative connotations, i recorded these buzz words in a tally to see if the article was overall positive or negativeResults- From the four article read i found 12 positive words compared to 21 negative ones. After collecting my results into a tally i then transferred the data to a bar graph. Recurring words i discovered were things like aggression and monsters which both highlight negative connotationsConclusions- From my practical i concluded that the effects of daycare are negative overall. My findings reject the null hypothesis as there was a significant difference between the results. However, I successfully carried out my aim.