Some words change the pronunciation of the vowel in the main stress syllable when a suffix is added to the root word. E.g: ex'treme - ex'tremity / i : / / e /
In some words there is also a change in the pronunciation of the consonant(s) that follow the vowel of the stress syllable. E.g: / ai:/ ig'nite ig'nition /iʃ /
In other words where there is a change in pronunciation the spelling of the vowel and or the following consonant(s) also changes. E.g: /i:v/ de'ceive - de'ception, de'ceptive /ep/
Words that change their strss pattern when a suffix is added to the root also commonly change their pronunciation in one or more syllables. E.g: pro'nounce - pronunci'ation /ə/ /au/ /ə/ / ʌ/
Prefixes and Word stress (1)
Some words are made up of a prefix and a root
Sometimes the root can be use as an independent word but others it can't
In some words the prefix is unstressed and is only made prominent for contrast. E.g: A: Do you enjoy driving?B: No,i really disLIKEA: I thought you LIKED driving?B: No, i really DISlike it
In words with de- and re- prefixes the prefix is usually pronounced /di/ and /ri/ if it is unstressed and /di:/ and /ri:/ if it has secondary stress. Eg: de'grade /di-/ ,decom'pose /di:-/Some words with these prefixes are pronounced with unstressed /i/ in the prefixes when they are use as verbs and a stressed /i:/ when they are use as noun.
Some words with the re- prefixxes are spell the same but have different stressed and meaning depending on whether re- means again or not.
Prefixes and Word stress(2)
In some words, the prefix itself is the one stressed. In CALD, most of these words are nouns and are shown as having their main stress on the prefix. Sometimes they may have a secondary stress later in the word.
Examples: subway - /'sʌbweɪ/ superpower - /'suːpə,paʊə/*Note however, that other words with the same prefixes have main stress on a syllable after the prefix, most of these are adjectives. For a list with examples of these words, go to Resource 1.For examples of this and a list of these words, go to Resource 2In many words with prefix, the prefix has a secondary stress with the main stress being later in the word. When they are used in conversation they tend to have stress shift which makes the prefix to be prominent rather than the main stressed syllable.
*A compound noun is an expression made up of more than one word which functions as a noun. Some are written as two words, other with a hyphen and some as one word.
Ex: 'crash ,barrier ,double-'glazing 'baby,sitter
-The following types of compound nouns usually have main stress on the first part:
*noun + noun: 'arms race 'fire ex,tinguisher 'night-time 'pillar-box 'lipstick 'airport
However, if the first part gives the material that the second part is made out of, main stress usually goes on the second part, example of this is: ,cotton 'wool BUT 'cotton ,plant. Exceptions are most compounds ending with -cheese, -bread or -cake
*noun + -ing form: 'bird-,watching 'house-,hunting 'fly-,fishing; EXCEPTIONS: pe,destrian 'crossing ,ball 'bearing
*-ing form + noun: 'dressing ,gown 'sitting ,room 'freezing ,point; EXCEPTIONS: ,managing di'rector de,fining 'moment *verb + noun: 'search , party con'trol ,tower 'think ,tank
Most adjective + noun compounds have main stress on the second part, and secondary stress on the first: ,social se'curity ,hot po'tato ,absolute 'zero; Exceptions: 'blind spot 'dental ,floss 'easy ,chair 'broadband 'greenhouseThis includes: *Adjectives + -ing form: ,central 'heating ,global 'warming ,passive 'smoking
*Past participle + noun: ,split in'finitive in,verted 'commas ,lost 'property